CONTENTS 

International Zoo News Vol. 45/7 (No. 288) October/November 1998

GUEST EDITORIAL

Fred Swengel

402
FEATURE ARTICLES

Maintenance of the Chilean Flamingo at Rheine Zoo

Achim Johann

406

A Visit to the Atlantic Provinces of Canada

Ken Kawata

414

The Development of Zoo Education

Stephen P. Woollard

422

Captive Management and Breeding of the Verrucose Frog

Brij Kishor Gupta

427

Book Reviews

433

Conservation

435

Annual Reports

438

International Zoo News

446
Recent Articles 459


GUEST EDITORIAL

Endemic bird areas and zoo bird collections: How much overlap?

Recently the focus of zoo conservation efforts has begun to shift from an emphasis on individuals and populations to the preservation of entire ecosystems (Bohmke, 1998). Conway (1995) has eloquently argued that to remain relevant in the future, the primary mission of zoos must be the preservation of nature. This change in roles for zoos invites an examination of the extent to which current animal collections, which were largely assembled as a result of other priorities, are preadapted to help zoos focus on this new mission. A comparison of captive bird collections as listed by ISIS (1997) with a recently published analysis of avian conservation priorities in the field (Stattersfield et al., 1998) provides some clues as to the answer.

BirdLife International has analyzed the global distributions of all bird species with ranges less than 50,000 square kilometers in area. Twenty-seven per cent of all birds (2,561 species) have such limited ranges and these ranges frequently overlap, so that 93% of these species are found only in a set of 218 Endemic Bird Areas (EBAs). Seventy-four per cent (816 species) of all birds currently classified as threatened, and 80% of all birds that have become extinct in the last two centuries, have or had restricted ranges. Twenty per cent of the world's bird species are found only in EBAs that together comprise just 1% of the planet's land area. These areas, the majority of which are highly threatened, are clearly top priorities for conservation.

The 30 June 1997 ISIS Abstract lists 2,220 (1,368 nonpasserine and 852 passerine) species of birds in 424 reporting collections worldwide. The 245 U.S. and Canadian collections represented include virtually all major North American zoos. Since the coverage of other regions is less complete (Europe 118, Asia 23, Australia/New Zealand 21, Africa 10, and other New World 7), the following analysis will focus primarily on North American collections.

North American zoos had 1,473 (967 nonpasserine and 506 passerine) species in their collections: 133 (96 nonpasserine and 37 passerine), or 9%, of these are restricted-range species. These species represent 79 EBAs, including 28 areas that are rated of critical priority for conservation action. Unfortunately, few of these species have captive populations of more than 25 specimens (see Table 1). Twenty-four species are represented by only a single specimen in North American zoos.

Table 1. Restricted-range bird species in North American zoos (ISIS, 1997).

Specimens in Captivity

Species

³ 25

30

³ 50

16

³ 100

6

Seven restricted-range species are covered by AZA Species Survival Plans (Boyd, 1998): Guam rail (Gallirallus owstoni), pink pigeon (Columba mayeri), western crowned pigeon (Goura cristata), thick-billed parrot (Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha), St Vincent amazon (Amazona guildingii), Micronesian kingfisher (Todirhamphus cinnamominus) and Bali starling (Leucopsar rothschildi). Ten additional species are covered by international or AZA regional studbooks: nene (Branta sandvicensis), northern helmeted curassow (Pauxi pauxi), blue-billed curassow (Crax alberti), mountain peacock pheasant (Polyplectron inopinatum), Malay peacock pheasant (P. malacense), Marianas fruit dove (Ptilinopus roseicapilla), salmon-crested cockatoo (Cacatua moluccensis), red-fronted macaw (Ara rubrogenys), Spix's macaw (Cyanopsitta spixii) and red bird of paradise (Paradisaea rubra). An additional 71 (45 nonpasserine and 26 passerine) restricted-range species and 25 EBAs (including 13 of critical priority) are represented in ISIS member collections outside North America. Therefore, globally, at least 204 restricted-range species representing at least 104 EBAs are maintained in captivity.

The ten families of birds with the most captive specimens are listed in Table 2. Three of these families have no restricted-range species in the wild and two more lack such species in captivity. Globally, 6.3% (7,358 out of 116,191) of ISIS bird specimens belong to restricted-range species.

 

 

 

Table 2. Total specimens in ISIS member collections worldwide (ISIS, 1997), number of restricted-range species (RRS) represented in captivity globally (ISIS, 1997), and total number of restricted-range species in the wild (Stattersfield et al., 1998) for the ten most common bird families in captivity.

 

Family

Specimens

RRS in captivity

Total RRS

Anatidae

27,978

6

10

Psittacidae

11,150

36

88

Phasianidae

7,859

21

64

Phoenicopteridae

7,627

0

0

Columbidae

5,734

21

133

Estrildidae

4,266

9

32

Spheniscidae

4,176

0

0

Threskiornithidae

4,153

0

1

Gruidae

2,444

0

0

Accipitridae

2,420

0

23

The data from North American zoos suggest that a captive bird species is only one-third as likely to be a restricted-range species as the average species in the wild. It is perhaps not surprising that captive collections are biased towards species of wider distribution, as these presumably tend to have larger wild populations and are less likely to have legal restrictions on export from all countries of origin. Clearly, too, certain popular bird exhibits from families lacking restricted-range species – such as flamingos, penguins, cranes, and storks – do not readily lend themselves towards an emphasis on EBAs. However, this is somewhat compensated by the high rates of local endemism in such zoo favorites as parrots, pheasants, pigeons, and hornbills.

An examination of the bird faunas of the EBAs not represented by captive bird specimens shows that about two-thirds include endemic species belonging to families that are common zoo exhibits. While export bans and other laws may make the acquisition of ambassador species impossible from a number of these EBAs, there is considerable potential to expand the current list.

Several EBAs that have no endemic avian representatives in captivity do have captive populations of endemic mammals and reptiles. These areas include Cuba, the Bahamas, three EBAs in Madagascar, the Comoros, Aldabra, Pemba, the Central Ethiopian Highlands, the Caucasus, India's Western Ghats, the Adelbert and Huon ranges of Papua New Guinea, and New Zealand's North Island. Although patterns of endemism in mammals and reptiles differ in some respects from birds (for example, certain of the oceanic island EBAs lack native mammals or reptiles, while certain desert areas with high endemism for both groups lack restricted-range birds), there appears to be considerable congruence. However, until the endemism patterns for other vertebrate groups have been as carefully analyzed as those for birds, the EBA concept will likely have strongest appeal to bird curators and keepers.

The success of several zoos in supporting field conservation efforts in key areas while lacking any of those area's endemics in their own collections suggests that it may not be crucial to maintain representatives from an EBA in order to leverage resources towards preserving the native habitat. Projects by Fort Wayne Children's Zoo in the Mentawai Islands (Tenaza, 1991) and the Bronx Zoo in Sumba (anon., 1997) provide two examples. The presence of an ambassador or flagship species in a zoo does, however, present considerable symbolic value in directing the attention of both the zoo's visitors and staff onto the importance of conserving the species' ecosystem and provides a rallying point for raising funding for in situ efforts.

To date, relatively little emphasis has been placed on the importance of key centers of endemism such as EBAs or the flowering-plant-based `biodiversity hotspots' (Mittermeier et al., 1998) in planning regional zoo collection priorities (e.g. Diebold, 1997). However, with representatives of over 100 of the planet's highest priority sites for conservation already present in zoos, the avicultural community has great potential – if it so chooses – to help lead the evolution of the zoo world's mission to one squarely focused on preserving the world's biodiversity in its natural habitats.

Fred Swengel, Minnesota Zoological Garden, 13000 Zoo Boulevard, Apple Valley, Minnesota 55124, U.S.A.

References

Anon. (1997): The conservation endowment fund 1997 grant awards – Disney continues major support. AZA Communiqué (September 1997), 4–5.

Bohmke, B. (1998): Chacoan peccary. AZA Communiqué (April 1998), 3.

Boyd, L.J. (ed.) (1998): AZA Directory of Zoological Parks and Aquariums 1998. American Zoo and Aquarium Association, Bethesda, Maryland.

Conway, W. (1995): The conservation park: a new zoo synthesis for a changed world. In The Ark Evolving: Zoos and Aquariums in Transition (ed. C.M. Wemmer), pp. 259–276. Smithsonian Institution, Front Royal, Virginia.

Diebold, E.N. (1997): A summary of the North American Zoo and Aquarium Bird Curators 1992–1996 Strategic Plan. 1997 AZA Regional Conference Proceedings, 262–270.

ISIS (1997): ISIS Bird Abstract as of 30 June 1997. International Species Information System, Apple Valley, Minnesota.

Mittermeier, R.A., Myers, N., and Thomsen, J.B. (1998): Biodiversity hotspots and major tropical wilderness areas: approaches to setting conservation priorities. Conservation Biology 12, 516–520.

Stattersfield, A.J., Crosby, M.J., Long, A.J., and Wege, D.C. (1998): Endemic Bird Areas of the World: Priorities for Biodiversity Conservation. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Tenaza, R.R. (1991): The Mentawai Islands: a case study in conservation of rainforest primates and archaic culture. AAZPA 1991 Regional Conference Proceedings, 602–606.

Fred Swengel has compiled two appendices to this editorial, listing all the restricted-range bird species kept in ISIS member collections, and the Endemic Bird Areas that are represented by captive specimens. These appendices may be viewed on the Minnesota Zoo web site at:

www.mnzoo.com/partners/mnzoo/eba.html


European Zoo Directory

The third edition of Quantum Verzeichnis is now available. This 221-page volume lists addresses and phone/fax numbers of hundreds of zoos, aquariums and other animal collections in 37 countries of Europe and the former Soviet Union. Also included are lists of zoological institutes, conservation organisations, current in situ projects, EEP coordinators, studbook keepers and TAGs, IUCN/SSC Specialist Groups, internet and e-mail addresses, and contact numbers for over 2,000 individuals involved in wild animal husbandry, conservation and related fields.

Quantum Verzeichnis 3 (ISBN 3–930962–98–5) is available from Quantum Conservation e.V., Heeder Dorfstrasse 44, 49356 Diepholz, Germany (Tel.: 05441–82133; Fax: 05441–82132). Price including postage: DM18 (outside Germany £10 or US$15). DM2 (or equivalent) from the sale of each copy will go to the conservation project for the Tonkin snub-nosed monkey in Vietnam.



MAINTENANCE OF THE CHILEAN FLAMINGO AT RHEINE ZOO

BY ACHIM JOHANN

Rheine Zoo has been keeping Chilean flamingos (Phoenicopterus chilensis) since 1967. The first breeding occurred in 1981 and since then 117 chicks (as at 24.8.1998) have been reared. This relative success has attracted attention among our colleagues, and Rheine has been asked many times for the `secret of this success'. In the following article the history and husbandry of the flamingos at Rheine Zoo is summarized, in the hope that it may give hints to interested keepers.

History

The first 12 flamingos were acquired in 1967 from two different sources. As seen from old photographs, these birds were kept together with different species of geese and cranes. Twenty-five more flamingos arrived in 1974, 1975 and 1978 from four different dealers; all these are presumed to have been wild-caught birds. Also in the mid-1970s the zoo stopped keeping flamingos in a mixed-species group. However, there were still two Cuban flamingos (P. ruber ruber) in the group; these left in the early 1980s, and since then only Chilean flamingos have been kept in the enclosure.

The first breeding occurred in 1981 when one chick was reared, and from then on breeding continued every year. Twenty-seven adult birds have died over the years, and 53 Rheine-bred flamingos have been sent to other zoos. So over the years the flamingo group grew from 12 to a colony which is kept at around 60 individuals.

Table 1 gives details of the development of the stock. However, there are some questions about the correct numbers at the end of the years, as annual counting was not done regularly at first, and the two Cuban flamingos seem sometimes to have been included in the total numbers and sometimes not. Also, in the early 1980s the animals were marked with coloured plastic rings, but when these were checked a few years later, many had been lost or had become bleached. Only in 1994 did we mark the flamingos with numbered metal rings, which allows clear identification of the individuals when they are being handled, but unfortunately does not help with behavioural observations, as the numbers cannot be read at a distance. So when balancing the numbers in Table 1 some discrepancies may arise.

 

 

Year

no. acquired

no. eggs

hatched

reared

adult deaths

sold

stock (31.12)

1967

12

 

 

 

 

 

12

1970

 

 

 

 

1

 

11

1972

 

 

 

 

1

 

10

1973

 

 

 

 

 

 

10

1974

6

 

 

 

 

 

16

1975

6

 

 

 

1

 

21

1976

 

 

 

 

1

 

20

1977

 

 

 

 

 

 

20

1978

13

 

 

 

 

 

33

1979

 

 

 

 

 

 

33

1980

 

 

 

 

 

 

33

1981

 

13

1

1

1

 

33

1982

 

13

8

5

1

 

37

1983

 

8

5

2

1

 

38

1984

 

17

11

6

 

3

41

1985

 

15

9

8

1

 

48

1986

 

15

8

7

 

8

47

1987

 

17

11

9

1

5

49

1988

 

20

12

10

2

10

47

1989

 

19

12

11

1

12

45

1990

 

16

12+1

2+1

3

 

44

1991

 

21

8+2

2+2

 

 

46

1992

1

17

6+1

4+1

4

 

49

1993

 

27

17

10

2

 

57

1994

 

20

9

5

3

 

58

1995

 

10

2

1

1

 

58

1996

 

30

19

11

1

 

68

1997

 

34

16+3

10+3

1

10

67

1998

 

38

21

13

 

5

751

1 as at 24.8.1998

 

 

It should also be explained that the numbers in the `hatched' and `reared' columns of Table 1 are sometimes shown in the form `x + y'. In these cases there were more eggs incubated than pairs had been brooding (see `General Husbandry', below). We transferred these eggs to neighbouring zoos, mainly Allwetterzoo Münster, where flamingos were brooding on infertile eggs. So some Rheine-bred flamingos hatched and were reared in Münster, and these are indicated as the `+ y' numbers. One of these `foreign' hatchlings returned to Rheine in 1992 and is listed in the `acquired' column.

Housing

The flamingo enclosure has an area of about 360 m2. Visitors can view it from two opposite sides. The centrally located rectangular pool, made of concrete, measures 10 by 9 metres. Two sides are shallow and allow the flamingos easy access, whereas the other sides descend steeply to the deepest point of the pool (0.6 m). One-third of the pool is a mud section, but this was never really used as a nesting site. From the beginning, nests were built around a willow tree, so water is led there to keep the surrounding area muddy. The pool is permanently kept topped up with water from an outside channel. We have no analysis of the quality of the water, but there are certainly no contents which would add to the nutrition of the flamingos. The pool is cleaned regularly weekly or bi-weekly. The land area is mainly covered with grass, and there are hedges and some trees on two sides of the enclosure which hinder cross-viewing.

The Chilean flamingo enclosure at Rheine Zoo. (Photo: Achim Johann)

In a nearby shed a room of 20 m2 serves as winter-quarters for the flamingos. The access to this room is via a fenced area of approximately 30 m2, which also serves as an outside enclosure during the winter. Neither this enclosure nor the inside room has a pool. The floor indoors is made of asphalt and is additionally covered with straw.

Feeding

In the beginning the flamingos were fed with a home-made `soup'; the recipe for this is no longer available. Since 1981 we have fed them on Altromin Flamingo Standard Diet 0830 (manufactured by Altromin GmbH, D-32770 Lage). According to the producer's information, the nutrient content of this pelleted food is as follows: 19.0% crude protein, 2.5% crude fat and 6.5% crude fibre. Per kg of the diet, 16,000 IU Vitamin A, 2,000 IU Vitamin D3 and 12.0 mg Vitamin E are added, among others. On average, the diet contains 3.2% calcium, 0.8% phosphorus, 0.25% magnesium, 0.25% sodium and 1.1% potassium.

We add ground paprika to colour the plumage, but we must admit that we have never tested whether the content of canthaxanthin in the Altromin diet would be sufficient on its own. Furthermore some soaked wheat and dried shrimp are added as a `carrier' for the paprika. The daily quantity for 60 animals before the breeding season is 16 kg Altromin pelleted diet and 4 kg of the wheat-shrimp-paprika mixture (which contains about 150 grams of paprika). We calculate between 200 and 250 grams of food per animal. There are considerable changes in the quantity required between the breeding and non-breeding seasons, and we also have to live with food being spoiled by wild mallards. We also know that our way of feeding from deep dishes placed in the pool is sub-optimal, and we hope to solve this problem in future by constructing special feeding pools. So the quantity per animal currently fed might be slightly too high compared to a fully-controlled flamingo diet. The flamingos are fed at about 9.00 a.m., and a second feeding at 3.00 p.m. is a refilling according to the current appetite of the animals. The food is distributed into three or more dishes which are filled up with fresh water so that the flamingos can filter the ingredients out.

With the exception of adding calcium (Avisanol, manufactured by Avicultur, Germany) in the breeding and rearing season, we make no alterations to the composition of the food over the year. And after reviewing we can state that there have been no alterations to this feeding scheme since 1981, and we see no reason to change anything in the future.

General and special husbandry

Routine work includes the twice-daily feeding, regular cleaning of the pool and mowing the lawn. The flamingos are kept in their outdoor enclosure year round depending on the weather. We take them into the shed only when the water in the pool is frozen and freezing weather is forecast to continue. The flamingos are then driven in; there is no need to catch them for this purpose. The temperature in the shed is just above freezing and there is no additional heating. Even then the birds are allowed to go out into the fenced corridor for some hours daily. They are immediately returned to the main enclosure when the pool is accessible again. So it may happen that the flamingos change several times between outdoor and indoor accommodation in the course of the winter, or it may be that they are not locked in at all, or at another extreme have to stay indoors for a week.

In spring we prepare the nest site in advance. Normally this is done when the flamingos start their courtship display. We leave the old nests as they are, and add fresh soil (no special mixture) round about. The ground is regularly raked and smoothed to stimulate nest-building. We also prepare mounds of mud in the shape of nests. Adding mud to the nest site goes on as long as the birds are brooding. The nest site is kept moist by leading water there, and this also continues when the birds are brooding. We stop watering when the first chicks are hatched, as there might be a risk of their drowning when leaving the nest for the first time.

The nesting area in the Chilean flamingo enclosure. (Photo: Achim Johann)

For at least 15 years we have had a special incubating procedure as a response to the destruction of eggs by competing flamingos or pests such as martens and crows. We exchange the eggs directly after laying for the eggs of domestic geese. The eggs (both flamingo and goose) are numbered, and we draw a map with the location of the nests. The flamingo eggs are incubated in a brooder (37.5° C, c. 60% humidity) and the flamingos brood on the `dummies' (which they really are, as we sterilize the goose eggs by storing them in a refrigerator). A few days before hatching the chicks give loud calls from the eggs, and when these are heard, or at the latest when the egg-shell is pipped, the eggs are changed back. The time between pipping and final hatching might be as long as two days. The total incubation period varies from 28 to 32 days, but is usually 31 days. It should be noted that Chilean flamingos' eggs differ considerably in size, shape and weight, but these differences seem to have no relation to fertility and hatching success.

Because of multiple laying by some pairs who abandon a nest, eggs found beside nests and so on, we normally have many more eggs than pairs. However, allowing for infertile eggs and chicks who die during incubation, the number is normally balanced. By this method of management we get a maximum of flamingos hatched, but in many cases the pair who rear a chick are not the real parents. Brooding pairs receive eggs according to the time they have spent sitting, and normally this is close to the natural incubation time. Nevertheless, in some cases we had fertile eggs left in the incubator when no more parent birds were sitting on nests. By making `emergency calls' we then found still brooding flamingos in neighbouring zoos, and transferred the eggs to them for hatching and rearing. So far we have not tried hand-rearing.

Flamingo eggs have proved to be quite easy to incubate. No special treatment is required, and we only experienced problems with hatching one year when very hot summer temperatures caused humid air in the facility where the incubators are located. A lack of oxygen was the probable reason for this failure.

Young flamingos are hardy chicks. We have had some losses in the first days of life, mainly as a result of accidents, but only in a very few cases have older chicks suffered from disease. In three consecutive years we had several cases of malformed foot and leg bones, resembling the symptoms of rickets rather than perosis (slipped tendon). The birds did not recover from this and had to be euthanized. We therefore add more calcium to the diet before laying starts, and also when the chicks are being reared.

We should state that adult flamingos, too, cause no special health problems. Most causes of death are accident-related, and in two cases autopsy showed mycosis of the respiratory organs.

Breeding data

For twelve years we have collected some basic data on fertility, hatching and rearing success. These are listed in Table 2. The percentage of fertility might be of interest, in view of the fact that all our flamingos are pinioned. It is a common opinion that pinioned birds have difficulties in mating and that as a result fertility is low. Another frequently-expressed opinion on flamingo mating is that deep water is needed to make mating easier for pinioned birds. The latter fact, at least, seems to be one which can be ignored: we have several times seen absolutely perfect mating on dry land.

The fertility rate should not be used as an argument in defence of pinioning. At Rotterdam Zoo it has been observed that males may copulate with several females (Catherine King, pers. comm.), so perhaps there are fewer (male) individuals involved in fertilization than we thought. Nevertheless, the Rheine data do at least show that the fact of pinioning does not prevent any successful mating and breeding.

As stated earlier, we are unfortunately unable to give exact data on the individual animals involved in the whole breeding record, because of the lack of easy means of identification, and also because of the lack of time for close observations. But at least from the 1998 season we know that 21 pairs were brooding or rearing chicks at the same time. None of our flamingos is sexed surgically or in any other way, but judging by their sizes we believe that the sex-ratio in our group is quite balanced.

The very low rearing success in 1990 was caused by pests which killed the chicks within the first days of life. In at least two cases a feral cat was seen with a dead chick in its mouth.

The dates of first and last egg-laying suggest that the flamingos tend to start laying later from year to year. In 1998, however, the first laying occurred quite early, on 31 May, and laying went on until 1 August. We have the impression that the weather in spring influences breeding behaviour, and that rainy weather after a period of sunshine can dramatically interrupt courtship behaviour.

Table 2. Basic data on Chilean flamingo fertility, hatching and rearing, Rheine Zoo, 1987–1998.

 

Year

no. eggs

no. fertile

percent fertile

hatched

reared

egg-laying period

1987

17

13

76%

11

9

22.5 - 25.6

1988

20

17

85%

12

10

6.5 - 30.6

1989

19

14

73%

12

11

30.4 - 6.7

1990

16

15

93%

12+1

2+1

15.5 - 7.6, 5.7

1991

21

12

57%

8+2

2+2

15.5 - 8.7

1992

17

14

82%

6+1

4+1

31.5 - 23.7

1993

27

24

88%

17

10

12.6 - 26.7

1994

20

14

70%

9

5

6.6 - 5.8

1995

10

5

50%

2

1

17.7 - 20.8

1996

30

22

73%

19

11

16.6 - 14.8

1997

34

25

74%

16+3

10+3

18.6 - 11.8

1998

38

28

74%

21

131

31.5 - 1.8

1 as at 24.8.1998

 

Discussion

Zoos as well as private keepers tend to have ideas and opinions on successful husbandry and the essential requirements for successful breeding of flamingos. Group size, food, reduction of disturbances, special (bright) lighting and ambient temperature are all mentioned as possible reasons for success or failure. At Rheine Zoo we cannot say that we have any special `recipe' or any idea what is the reason for our success – and we should be prepared that things might suddenly change for the worse, as some other formerly very successful keepers have experienced. All we can do is just describe the current situation and state:

1. Breeding started when the flamingo group numbered more than 30, whereas there had been no breeding activity in previous years.

2. At the same time as the group was stocked up to this number, other bird species like cranes and waterfowl had been eliminated from the enclosure.

3. Also at the same time, the food was changed from a home-made mixture to a special pelleted flamingo diet.

4. Breeding results became better with the described management of incubation and with the continually growing stock.

5. Last but not least: our flamingos are cared for by year-long dedicated keepers, and – especially during the breeding season – special commitment and skills are essential for success.

We can state that for at least 12 years no changes have been made to our general and special maintenance methods.

It is amazing, as well as a challenge, that such popular and long-kept zoo animals still cause husbandry questions (to say `problems' would be an exaggeration). In cooperation with the Phoenicopteriformes TAG of the EEP, Rheine Zoo will be doing some research into the nutrition of flamingos in the near future (Johann and Schumacher, in prep.). Perhaps on a longer time-scale we will be able to contribute some objective parameters for flamingo husbandry.

Acknowledgements

I am grateful to the bird-keepers Dagmar Schelshorn and Ute Lamkemeyer, and all the other colleagues involved in flamingo maintenance at Rheine, for discussions on this topic and most of all for their dedicated work with these birds.

Achim Johann, Curator, Tierpark Rheine, Salinenstrasse 150, D- 48432 Rheine, Germany.



A VISIT TO THE ATLANTIC PROVINCES OF CANADA

BY KEN KAWATA

The Atlantic meets North America in eastern Canada in a region composed of four provinces: New Brunswick (NB), Newfoundland (NF), Nova Scotia (NS) and Prince Edward Island (PE). Here the canyons of skyscrapers and the maze of congested highways are replaced by the ever-changing landscape of pristine beaches, weathered fishing villages, picturesque coves, soaring sea cliffs and fertile farmland. Although this region has a sparse population in an area of c. 540,000 km2, or about the size of France, it has its share of zoos and related facilities. A book by the American Automobile Association, or AAA (1998), lists the following:

Aquariums: Aquarium and Marine Centre, Shippagan, NB; Atlantic Salmon Centre, and Huntsman Aquarium Museum, St Andrews, NB; The Fluvarium, St John's, NF; Fisheries Museum of the Atlantic, Lunenburg, NS; Margaree Salmon Museum, North East Margaree, NS; Prince Edward Island Marine Aquarium, Cavendish, PE.

Zoological parks and related exhibits: Cherry Brook Zoo, Saint John, NB; Magnetic Hill Zoo, Moncton, NB; Woolastook Park, Fredericton, NB; Oaklawn Farm Zoo, Aylesford, NS; Two Rivers Wildlife Park, Marion Bridge, NS; Upper Clements Wildlife Park, Annapolis Royal, NS.

Of these, the AAA marks only two – the Aquarium and Marine Centre, Shippagan, and the Fisheries Museum of the Atlantic, Lunenburg – with an asterisk denoting `a point of interest of unusually high quality'. In the narrative section of the main text of the AAA book, some are given no specific information concerning the animal collection. None of them is accredited by AZA, although some are accredited by the Canadian Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums (CAZA).

Recently, my wife and I vacationed in the four provinces. Our focus was to visit national and provincial parks, but we did see several animal collections. Being so early in the season, not all of them were open to the public. Animals mentioned in this account represent what I saw on exhibit, and not necessarily the entire collections. Common domesticated stock, such as pigs, sheep, goats and chickens, have been omitted. Currencies mentioned are Canadian.

A damp and cold 1 June found us driving all the way around the Avalon Peninsula, NF, watching migrating woodland caribou. On the west coast of the peninsula near the town of Holyrood, Salmonier Nature Park was just opened for the season. Although it is not listed as a zoological facility by the AAA, the park exhibits a small number of native animals in captivity. There is no admission fee for this provincially operated park with 1,200 ha of land, 40 of which are developed for zoological exhibits. During the brief visit, we saw only three other visitors. A one-way trail of 2.3 km, mostly an elevated boardwalk, leads visitors through a forest; `sensitively' constructed, spacious enclosures are situated throughout the trail. The hard physical barriers that make up the enclosures blend in with the surrounding forest, and are not all that conspicuous. Naturalistic `furniture' such as trees and grass helps to soften the appearance of captivity. Small but basic signage explains the environment and animals. During the visit I noted the following: 1 red fox, 1 lynx, 2 moose, 1.0 woodland caribou, 1 great horned owl, 1.1 snowy owl, 1 American kestrel, 2 bald eagle and 8 Canada goose. An enclosure for the snowshoe hare was under construction. Labels were posted in enclosures for the following animals, but I could not locate them: river otter (a large enclosure), Arctic fox, mink, meadow vole and peregrine.

Captive animals constitute but a small part of the park, whose feature is an introduction to the boreal forest – conifers with moss-laden branches, moist and spongy forest floor, bogs and marsh. Throughout the park, the lack of physical barriers to confine visitors in the public area was noticeable. For instance, for the most part the boardwalk had no guardrail, nor was there any sign to keep visitors from jumping down to the forest. Another example was the walk-through open enclosure for the snowy owl. The visiting public was expected to push the double gates, enter the exhibit and continue to stay on the boardwalk. Presumably the owls were either feather-clipped or pinioned, making them quite vulnerable. Any potential vandal could jump off the boardwalk, chase the birds around or worse, before the park staff found it out. Perhaps such an arrangement is possible in a remote location, a world away from any big city.

North of Moncton, NB, lies an entertainment area known as the Magnetic Hill, which includes amusement rides, a golf course, a mini-train, a hotel and Magnetic Hill Zoo, owned and run by the city of Moncton (pop. 59,300). The admission fees are $6 for adults, $5 for 60 years plus, $3.75 for 4–11 years, and toddlers are free. The zoo began as a ranger station with orphaned and injured native animals. It grew into a game farm, which was purchased by the city in 1978. We visited this growing zoo on 4 June. Entering the zoo, one would immediately notice that labels and signs are in both English and French, since New Brunswick is officially bilingual. Winding walkways lead visitors through the wooded area. Exhibits are well maintained and clean. Animals appear well cared for, provided with hiding places and furniture. Some animals are being moved into more spacious, newer quarters, such as the only moated enclosure for the American black bear. A quick tour of this facility gives the impression of another zoo in the process of shedding a menagerie identity. A nature trail through the forest adds a nice touch. The zoo has an ambitious master plan, and construction work is under way in the African oasis area.

Animals on exhibit included: 2 ring-tailed lemur, 2 squirrel monkey, 2 lion-tailed macaque, 4 Japanese macaque, 3 olive baboon, 2 white-handed gibbon, 2 Arctic wolf, 3 American black bear, 3 raccoon, 2 river otter, 1 puma, 1 Canadian lynx, 2 jaguar, 1.1 lion, 1.1 Siberian tiger, 4 llama, 1.1 wapiti, 2 reindeer, 1.2 white-tailed deer, 15 fallow deer, 1.1 sika deer, 2.2.3 mouflon, 4 Barbary sheep, 2 American bison, 2 eland, 1 scimitar-horned oryx, 1 Grant's zebra, 1 greater rhea, 1 emu, 1 marabou, 2 Canada goose, 2.2 mandarin duck, 1 black vulture, 2 bald eagle, 2 Swainson's hawk, 3 peregrine, 4 blue peafowl, 2 vulturine guinea fowl, 4 wild turkey, 2 East African crowned crane, 1 turtle dove, 1 green-winged macaw, 4 red-masked conure, 1 lesser sulphur-crested cockatoo, 1 blue-eyed cockatoo, 1 yellow-crowned amazon, 2 blue-fronted amazon, 3 barred owl, 2 great horned owl, 2 short-horned owl, 1 common crow, 1 starling and 3 eastern bluebird. An insectarium had poison-arrow frogs and an assortment of arthropods including 1 goliath bird-eater, 1 orange-kneed tarantula and several species of giant cockroaches.

After the tour we visited Bruce Dougan, the zoo's general manager and a former president of CAZA, and enjoyed swapping zoo stories. According to him, the New Brunswick government has taken action to upgrade zoos in the province, pushing them toward CAZA accreditation. Already, those that did not meet the standard were closed, a welcome trend for the zoo profession and animal welfare.

A highway by the Rockwood Park in the north of Saint John, NB (pop. 72,500), takes you to Cherry Brook Zoo, a non-profit charitable organization. The admission fees are $6 for adults, $5 for senior, $4.50 for youth (13–17 years) and $2.50 for children (3–12). A winding, figure-eight walkway through a hilly mixed forest leads to exhibits, which give an impression of a `home-made' zoo with small wooden animal houses, and a variety of rather unimaginative enclosures whose appearances are somewhat softened by the vegetation. Animals appear to be well cared for. It is, however, apparent that the zoo is striving with limited resources, and that they need help for the upkeep and preventive maintenance of its physical plant.

Animals I noted on 5 June included: 2 red-necked wallaby, 3 brown lemur, 1 white-throated capuchin, 3 common marmoset, 3 golden lion tamarin, 1 white-handed gibbon, 2 lion, 1 Siberian tiger, 1 red fox (silver phase), 1 North American porcupine, 3 llama, 2 fallow deer, 2 white-tailed gnu, 3 mouflon, 1 Grant's zebra, 2 emu, 3 blue peafowl, 1.1 silver pheasant and 1 bob-white. An interesting feature is the native medicine herb garden, an area designated for plants used for medicinal purposes by indigenous peoples.

The zoo's brochure states that the zoo is `a part of a world wide effort to ensure the survival of the gentle brown lemur' and `working in conjunction with the Smithsonian Institute with the golden lion tamarins and the breeding of the black wildebeest (extinct in the wild).' In terms of conservation education, the zoo has a building called Endangered Species Awareness Center. On display is a variety of artifacts, including ivory and hawksbill turtle shell products, and full pelts of a Siberian tiger and a North China leopard. A graphic states that these were confiscated `at various ports of entry across Canada. Some people in our country are involved in the illegal trade of wildlife and plants.' Also seen are letters from children and a brief explanation of CITES. This is encouraging, since not many zoos have exhibits on CITES.

A drive on Highway 1 through the patchwork quilt of sea-carved shores, quaint villages and lush green forests leads to St Andrews, NB, which is said to be Canada's oldest seaside resort town. Located on Brandy Cove is Huntsman Aquarium Museum, housed in a rustic, one-storied wooden building, which we visited on 6 June. The museum is a private, non-profit organization and a department within the Huntsman Marine Science Centre. The admission fees are $4.50 for adults, $4 for senior (65+), $3 for children (4–17 yrs.); under 4 years are free.

The medicinal herb garden, Cherry Brook Zoo, New Brunswick. (Photo: Ken Kawata)

The building is divided into exhibit halls, which makes it look larger than it actually is. Graphics (bilingual), artifacts and preserved specimens abound about fisheries, aquaculture and marine biology. These are followed by live animal exhibits, consisting of 13 small tanks for herptiles and freshwater fishes, 3 small tanks for freshwater and brackish water fishes, and 7 small and 5 medium-sized tanks for saltwater fishes and invertebrates. A heart-shaped touch tank for marine invertebrates, unsupervised at our visit, was also noted. Species on exhibit consisted of regional animals including common snapping turtle, yellow-spotted salamander, golden shiner, Atlantic salmon, wolf-fish and Atlantic sea raven. The only exception was a tropical fish tank with a pacu.

The live specimens seemed to serve as supplement to the graphics and artifacts. In one of the graphics it was stated that the Huntsman Marine Laboratory, which was incorporated in 1969, `is not a public aquarium. Rather, the aquarium-museum is a small part of the public education program which itself is an integral part of the education and research roles of Huntsman Marine Laboratory.' (The names Marine Science Centre and Marine Laboratory often seemed to be used interchangeably.) Entertainment seems to be at the farthest end of their concern, although the visit was enjoyable. At the end of the series of live animals was a small pool with a breeding pair of harbor seals. At 11 a.m. an attendant fed them, gave an informative talk and fielded questions for about ten minutes. There was no music to dramatize the presentation; the attendant fed seals from the public area, making no attempt to enter the animal area to `pet' them, or to coax them to do anything. This was a refreshing switch from the more entertainment-oriented approach.

Driving five km west of Annapolis Royal, NS, Upper Clements Park, an amusement park, will first catch the visitor's eye. Upon paying the admission fee of $2.30 (5 years and under are admitted free) he is told that the Upper Clements Wildlife Park is included with the admission fee and is adjacent to this stylish amusement complex, a mere ten-minute walk, or he can take a brief ride in a tractor-pulled car for $1.15 per person, round trip. The combined admission fee of $2.30 per person is indeed a bargain. The atmosphere shifts immediately once the visitor enters the wildlife park through a tunnel, although the loud music and the noise from the roller coaster are still heard. The wildlife park has no flavor of an amusement park, and may surprise those who expected to see a more commercialized operation. Actually the amusement park is run by a separate group of local people, and the two are connected only by the tunnel. According to its brochure, the park was constructed in 1973 by the Department of Natural Resources and opened to the public on 6 July 1976. In 1995 the Upper Clements Wildlife Park Society, a community-based, non-profit organization, took over the park from the Province of Nova Scotia.

Animal exhibits occupy 12 ha out of the 567 ha that the park encompasses. The park is clean, providing a comfortable ambience, and on our visit on 7 June, even the type of crowd appeared more sedate than those in the amusement park. It takes about one hour to see the exhibits, which are divided into two areas. In the first area, a one-way, winding walkway through a forest allows visitors to view animals. Enclosures are plainly built, well maintained and furnished with live trees, grass and wood chips, and no rusting of wire was noted. The only enclosure with no natural substrate was the American black bear exhibit, consisting of concrete walls and floor but equipped with a hanging log, climbing

A view of the animal exhibit area, Upper Clements Wildlife Park, Nova Scotia. (Photo: Ken Kawata)

apparatus and a pool for the inhabitants. In some of the cages the wire mesh was vinyl-coated, which helped to lessen the appearance of confinement. It was interesting to note that the moose exhibit was indented off the main walkway, and visitors were guided through an 80-meter trail to view the animals. In this first area I saw the following animals: 2 woodchuck, 1 North American porcupine, 2 coyote, 4 red fox (2 of them silver phase), 2 Arctic fox, 2 American black bear, 1 raccoon, 1 striped skunk, 1 mink, 2 lynx, 2 bobcat, 0.1 moose, 2 bald eagle and 2 barred owl.

The second area was more open, with a pasture-like atmosphere, and mainly exhibited domesticated animals, including 4 Sable Island horse. Wild animals in this section included 1.6 red deer, 1 caribou, 0.2 fallow deer, 2.1 greater rhea, 2 emu, 2 mute swan and 7 Canada goose. Feed dispensers were available, encouraging visitors to purchase a handful of pelletized diet for 25 cents. An overall impression of this park was simplicity in the way the exhibits were designed and presented. Animals appeared healthy and active, some of them in cages of the type often referred to as `corn crib cages' in the U.S. Also noticeable was the way practical and useful information was presented, always at the bottom of the graphics in bold letters. Example: Raccoons `do not make pets. They are carriers of distemper and raccoon roundworms.' For the white-tailed deer (it was a large enclosure and I could not find them), it said, `Please leave young fawns where you find them!', adding that the park's deer were brought in by well-meaning but uninformed people, who mistakenly supposed fawns were orphaned.

Personal observations were made during the trip to this fascinating land. They were not meant to be critical; rather, they represent your writer's impressions on the characteristics of the facilities in the region. Let us begin with the social situation surrounding Canadian colleagues. As in many other countries, they are subjected to scrutiny by some animal advocate groups. This was evidenced during our vacation by an article in a Halifax, NS, local newspaper, in which a Zoocheck Canada official made a comment regarding the death of an infant killer whale at Marineland in Niagara Falls, Ontario (Ho, 1998). Reflecting their status in a fish bowl under a magnifying glass, there seems to exist a tendency for managers of captive animal facilities to make `politically correct' statements. Take, for instance, a segment in the Upper Clements Wildlife Park's brochure, which reads: `It is important to know that all animals in the Park have either been born in captivity or have been rehabilitated from injury and cannot return to the wild. The Park is inspected regularly by Provincial Wildlife Authorities.' A similar example: in a museum in Halifax, NS, we picked up a brochure from Shubenacadie Wildlife Park, also in NS. The text is carefully worded to avoid an impression of animals that were wild-caught, or in confinement, yet it is obvious that the park has captive animals: `Many of our animals are born or raised in captivity. The other residents were brought here injured and cannot be rehabilitated for a successful return to the wild. They now make their home with us.'

The population of the region, in proportion to the large area, is relatively small (c. 2,355,000), and it is unlikely that they can expect such a tidal wave of tourists as, for example, Florida does. This limited basis for support seems to be the chief factor in the modest size and scope of animal collections, and the housing and exhibit facilities. Due to harsh winters (the average minimum temperature in Fredericton, NB, in January is minus 16° C), the facilities in the regions are open to the public only during the warmer months. Based on the limited number of facilities that were visited, I cannot make a sweeping generalization; however, with the apparent exception of aquariums, nearly all exhibits in zoos and parks are in an out-of-door setting. Relatively large spaces are allocated to domesticated stock, many of them common. The list of herptiles is short (for example, I did not see a single crocodilian during the tour), and large tanks for sharks and coral reef fish, the standard crowd pleasers in aquariums, have yet to make an inroad. Also absent are the pachyderms and great apes, leaving the large felids to occupy the role of charismatic megamammals.

All the facilities have a pleasantly laid-back and low-key appearance, with a non-high-tech approach to their operation. Hard and smooth surfaces on the walkways are non-existent, replaced with wood chips and earth, which are easy on your feet. Guardrails are nearly always built of unpainted wood, instead of cold and unnatural metal. Also, old-style cages are still the norm in zoos and parks. Therefore hard physical barriers, namely fences and wire-meshes of all varieties, are in the mainstream, with a varying degree of visibility. Moated exhibits and the artificial rockwork made by the spray cement construction process, commonly called `gunite', the mainstay in other parts of North America, are virtually non-existent. This also means that in the absence of moats, animals are often brought much closer to the visiting public. In terms of interpretative methods, not many state-of-the-art, sophisticated techniques are present, such as participatory and interactive exhibits, often computer or electrically operated. A few labels are typewritten, refreshingly reminiscent of yesteryear. The hands-on approach is limited to mineral specimens and live marine invertebrates.

Such impressions remained unchanged at the facility most well developed for tourism of the six we visited, with a full-service restaurant, a fast food area and a large gift shop. Lunenburg, NS, designated in 1995 as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is home to the Fisheries Museum of the Atlantic. Lunenburg is also known as the capital of fisheries of Canada, so it is fitting, as one of the brochures states, that the museum `commemorates the fishing heritage of the Atlantic Coast of Canada.' Painted in bright red, the museum buildings, a former fish processing plant, are highly conspicuous. As we approached the entrance we were greeted by a friendly attendant. Admission fees are $7 for adults, $5.50 for seniors (65+), and $2 for children (under 6 admitted free). Although it was a weekday afternoon on our visit on 9 June, the museum was the most heavily visited by the public of all the facilities we saw during our vacation. Exhibit attendants were stationed everywhere, to give demonstrations and to answer questions.

Established in 1967, the museum is a branch of the Provincial Museum Complex, and operated by the Lunenburg Marine Museum Society for the Nova Scotia Museum. Actually the aquarium, located on the first floor, represents a relatively small section in this three-storied exhibit complex. Of the two to two-and-a-half hours required to see the whole museum, the aquarium would take up 20 minutes. This section consists of 20 or so small to medium-sized tanks, exclusively for the Atlantic marine fish and invertebrates, such as Atlantic salmon of various age classes, lumpfish, pollack, and of course the ubiquitous American lobster. There is also a touch tank for marine invertebrates. Since the museum's focus is on the regional marine life from a utilitarian viewpoint, just as in Huntsman Aquarium Museum, it is understandable that there are no `exotic' attractions such as shark tanks.

One of the rooms features a special demonstration of fish splitting and filleting. The man who conducts the demonstration was off on the day of our visit, and a continuous video tape was utilized. Only in an aquarium museum can we expect such an exhibit; certainly, demonstrations of butchering a deer are unthinkable in a zoo, at least in North America! The museum site on the waterfront includes two deep-sea fishing vessels, and visitors are welcome to walk through them. Housed in the buildings are a theater and exhibit halls for such subjects as inshore fisheries, marine engines and the dory (a flat-bottomed sea boat). The museum's aim to inform the public is evident at the whale and whaling exhibit, which highlights ancient and modern whaling, and the whale as an interesting subject of study. Although the region is visited by few people in the zoo field, the facilities, even though small and modest, offer an enjoyable experience and one well worth your time.

References

American Automobile Association (1998): Atlantic Provinces and Quebec TourBook. AAA Publishing, Heathrow, Florida.

Ho, P. (1998): Newborn killer whale dies after 11 days. Chronicle-Herald and Mail-Star (Halifax, NS), 10 June.

Ken Kawata, Belle Isle Zoo, Box 39, Royal Oak, Michigan 48068, U.S.A.


Announcing – the International Zoo News Web Site

With the help of Richard Perron of Quantum Conservation, I.Z.N. is going onto the Internet. The September issue (at present text only) may be viewed on http://www.quantum-conservation.org. We hope that future issues will be published simultaneously in magazine and web form.

It is also planned that back issues will be added to the site as and when time permits.

We would be grateful if zoos and other organisations contributing items to I.Z.N. could in future include their e-mail and/or web site addresses, if they have any. Hypertext links can then be set up, so that when their contributions appear on the web, their own sites can be accessed directly from the I.Z.N. site.



THE DEVELOPMENT OF ZOO EDUCATION

BY STEPHEN P. WOOLLARD

Zoos have always, at least to some degree, been places of education and learning. In the beginning, over 3,000 years ago, the Chinese `Gardens of Intelligence' and Egyptian collections served in part as libraries of life. However, the menageries of the Roman Empire which followed reflect the keeping of animals for `power and prestige' as well as a living resource for sport and `carnage' (Mallinson, 1998).

During the menagerie era (up until the 19th century) animal collections were studied by some scholars, but became elitist and imperial collections reflecting the wealth and power of the nobility, with little or no public access and a mentality based upon amusement and ignorance (Hoage and Deiss, 1996). However, the emergence of the zoological garden began to change this. The establishment of the Bristol, Clifton and West of England Zoological Society in 1835 is of particular note, as the following year it founded Bristol Zoological Gardens, the oldest provincial zoological gardens in the world. The philosophy of the Society – following that of the Zoological Society of London in 1826 – was to `promote the diffusion of useful knowledge' and `. . . affording rational amusement and recreation' (Riley, 1835, quoted in Green-Armytage, 1964).

The educational role embodied in this sentiment, and that of other zoological collections throughout the 19th century, was, however, largely limited to providing animals for entertaining curiosity – although the educational significance of seeing a real, live elephant, lion, tiger, etc., has often been underestimated. As early as 1832 parties from Christ's Hospital School began visiting London Zoo to see the live animals on display (Vevers, 1976). However, in Britain school visits to zoos – and other places such as museums – remained largely confined to the privileged classes throughout the Victorian era. It was only the ethos of `education for all', as embodied in the Education Acts of 1870, 1902 and 1944, that gave all pupils access to educational visits.

In the 19th century, of course, and well into the 20th, there was no television or mass tourism. The zoo, therefore, provided a window on the world, and began to mould the public's curiosity and desire for entertainment and enjoyment by providing lectures, talks and shows, alongside a living resource which was studied by the naturalists and scientists of the day. This led to providing the exhibits with greater `context', with more understanding of nature and the development of new techniques in enclosure design and display, such as in Hagenbeck's Zoo at Stellingen, near Hamburg (Cherfas, 1984).

At the start of the 20th century it began to be realised that the cages and enclosures themselves had educational messages inherent in them; Hagenbeck's idea of using ditches and moats created the illusion of animals being `free', providing the opportunity to develop environments which more closely resembled animals' natural habitats. However, the illusion might be considered too successful, in the sense that with the development of larger zoos and safari parks the animals may appear free, while the fact that they are still in a landscape dominated by plants alien to them is often ignored or goes unnoticed.

The subtle educational impact of seeing live animals in their more carefully designed enclosures was supplemented by various levels of interpretation. Over the decades zoo staff met the public and became the front line of animal information. It should be noted that in some collections, in the early days especially, the information may have been embellished with `tall tales', as the keepers/handlers received tips for their service to the public.

Labels giving information such as animal type (species), diet, and place of origin, appeared on most enclosures by the beginning of the 20th century. This method of interpretation has developed gradually over the years. Clinton Keeling claims to have pioneered the development of informative graphics and launched public teaching in British zoos in the early 1950s (Keeling, 1989, 1994). Undoubtedly he played an important part in recognising and developing zoological collections' educational value. There were other pioneers in this field too, and the development of graphical interpretation is still in progress.

During the 1950s the school education system in the U.K. (and elsewhere) had undergone significant changes, such that the potential role of zoos in biology education was recognised; and some collections – London, Paignton and Frankfurt were among the first – began to appoint dedicated education staff. The focus was largely directed towards biology and zoology, and developed alongside the curriculum in schools, but gradually evolved a cross-curricular niche for itself.

In 1972, while the important and significant role of zoos in breeding endangered species was being discussed at a conference in Jersey (Mallinson, 1998), the world's zoo educators gathered in Frankfurt for an international discussion on the development of education in zoological gardens. At this meeting, which inaugurated the International Association of Zoo Educators, now IZE (Kirchshofer, 1972), the then Head of Education at London Zoo, Michael Boorer, suggested that even more important than preaching conservation, zoo educators should `communicate an enthusiasm for animal life and an understanding of animals' (Boorer, 1972). This forward thinking recognised the essential role of education in ultimately strengthening the cause of conservation – a philosophy that has been keenly adopted by zoos such as Emmen in the Netherlands.

Slowly but surely the educational role of zoos began to develop, largely focused upon provision for visiting school parties. At the same time, the relationship of species to environment and human actions to environmental degradation began to be recognised. Zoo educators continued to concentrate upon `interpreting' their unique living resources, but began to adopt the ethic of `environmental education', which was adopted by IUCN in 1970, focusing upon human-environment interactions (IUCN, 1970, quoted in Sterling, 1992).

By the 1980s this educational role began to be seen as a vital one which should be fostered. This was demonstrated by Roger Wheater, then Director of Edinburgh Zoo, who reported to the U.K. Zoo Federation in 1980 that `. . . the value of zoo education as a contribution to increasing the awareness in the community of wildlife and environmental matters is a vital one, and therefore worthy of financial and professional educational support at the highest level.' (Wheater, 1980)

The 1980s saw diversification of ideas about education in zoos. Many zoos established education departments (largely to cater for the demand from schools), and the injection of a new breed of zoo worker, the `educator', led to some far-reaching and innovative approaches not only to educating school parties but also to providing a better educational experience for all visitors. For example, as a member of the `ZIP Squad' (Zoo Interpretation Programme) at Twycross Zoo in the late 1980s, which was led by Malcolm Whitehead, I helped with the development of a miniature `rain forest house', the Enchanted Forest (sadly no longer with us), which incorporated eye-catching graphics with thematic display of animals, and the public areas were also designed to complement the message.

The development of education was to some extent held back, or at least its progress was delayed, by a growing and vocal animal welfare and anti-zoo lobby (Whitehead, 1995). Educators found themselves spending a lot of time answering anti-zoo letters and sifting through real and emotionally-based arguments. However, this process did help to clarify issues and even contributed to improving zoos further.

At this time the emphasis of zoo education programmes, whilst reflecting curricular needs and interpreting the animal collection, began, as Prescott (1993) says, to focus `on the protection of nature and the conservation of biological diversity.' The publication of the World Zoo Conservation Strategy in 1993 (IUDZG/CBSG, 1993) marks an important development in the recognition of education as a key element of a zoo's function, and most particularly in its emphasis that all zoo visitors are the target for zoo education.

The 1990s, therefore, are truly the age of enlightenment in zoo education, as the themes of natural history, diversity, the environment, conservation, welfare and human responsibility began to be drawn together, and, more importantly, innovative educational ideas broke out of the zoo classroom and became incorporated into exhibit design in more and more zoos. The concept of ecology and the relationship between animals and their habitat began to become a central theme of many zoos' educational messages through exhibit design, labels and schools programmes, whilst many other themes continued alongside the development of this ecological immersion approach.

At the close of the 20th century and the dawn of the new millennium, a new phase of zoo education begins, using what has gone before as a foundation, to develop an education that enables zoo visitors to take responsibility for their world and act in a sustainable, environmentally friendly way. This holistic empowering phase has just begun. . .

The seven phases of zoo education I have identified in this article are summarised as Figure 1.

References

Boorer, M. (1972): Education for conservation at Whipsnade Park. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Education in Zoological

Gardens, Frankfurt 1972 (ed. R. Kirchshofer), pp. 85–86.

Cherfas, J. (1984): Zoo 2000. British Broadcasting Corporation, London.

Green-Armytage, A.H.N. (1964): Bristol Zoo 1835–1964. Arrowsmith.

Hoage, R.J., and Deiss, W.A. (eds.) (1996): New Worlds, New Animals – From Menagerie to Zoological Park in the Nineteenth Century. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore and London.

IUDZG/CBSG (1993): The World Zoo Conservation Strategy: the Role of the Zoos and Aquaria of the World in Global Conservation. IUDZG, The World Zoo Organisation.

Keeling, C.H. (1989): What were you doing on Saturday 7th October 1950? International Zoo News 36 (4): 20–21.

Keeling, C.H. (1994): One Man and his Animals. Clam Publications, Guildford, U.K.

Kirchshofer, R. (ed.) (1972): Proceedings of the International Conference on Education in Zoological Gardens, Frankfurt 1972.

Prescott, J. (1993): Zoological gardens and biodiversity: from animal displays to environmental action. International Zoo News 40 (6): 21–26.

Sterling, S. (1992): Coming of Age: a Short History of Environmental Education. National Association for Environmental Education.

Vevers, G. (1976): London's Zoo. Bodley Head, London.

Wheater, R. (1980): Zoo Education Survey Report. Federation of Zoos of Great Britain and Ireland (unpublished).

Whitehead, M. (1995): Considering education. Ratel 22 (2): 59–63.

Woollard, S.P. (1998): The Educational Role of Zoological Gardens and their Potential in Developing Education for Sustainability. Unpublished M.Sc. thesis, South Bank University, London.

Stephen P. Woollard, Assistant Head of Education, Bristol Zoo Gardens, Clifton, Bristol BS8 3HA, U.K.


New information source available to I.Z.N. readers

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To use this service, readers need only access the Allen Press World Wide Web site at www.allenpress.com and follow the link to Access to UnCover. When prompted for user name, type `access' (lowercase), and for the Password type `deliver' (lowercase).



CAPTIVE MANAGEMENT AND BREEDING OF THE VERRUCOSE FROG

BY BRIJ KISHOR GUPTA

Introduction

The verrucose frog (Limnonectes keralensis) is an endemic species of southern India. It is known from Kerala (Inger and Dutta, 1986; Dutta, 1992), and Daniels (1992a, 1992b) has reported its distribution in Tamil Nadu and Karnataka as well as Maharashtra. Information on the ecology of this frog is scanty. Till 1984 Inger et al. (1984) found only a single specimen at 710 metres above sea level. Nevertheless, during `visual encounter surveys' as described by Heyer et al. (1994), I saw and collected several L. keralensis at an elevation of 700 metres in disturbed and secondary forest of Anaikatty, Coimbatore district, Tamil Nadu, and at an elevation of 900–1,000 metres in Mukkali, Kerala, a rainforest area 25 km from the Coimbatore Zoological Park site.

A verrucose frog. (Photo: Brij Kishor Gupta)

The verrucose frog is listed as `Lower Risk near threatened' in the Conservation Assessment and Management Plan (CAMP) Workshop held for the amphibians of India using the IUCN Red List criteria at Orissa in April 1997. But at that time verrucose frogs had never been kept in any zoo, though Daniels (1992c) reports that they have been bred in captivity.

Coimbatore Zoological Park and Conservation Centre (CZPCC) has recently had considerable success in keeping the species in captivity. At the time of the present study (June 1997 to March 1998) four individuals were held at CZPCC, one of whom died. Egg-laying was observed once. The aim of this study was to formulate a simple husbandry protocol for maintaining and exhibiting the frogs in zoos, as well as breeding them in captivity.

Materials and methods

In March 1997, with financial help from Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust's Gerald Durrell Memorial Fund, CZPCC initiated a captive husbandry and management programme for common Indian frogs and toads. Four (1.3) L. keralensis were taken into captivity in June 1997. One female died after 80 days in captivity, but the other three animals were successfully maintained. In February–March 1998 reproduction was observed on several occasions.

General husbandry methods were adopted as described in detail in Gupta (1998). The frogs are housed in a glass terrarium measuring 70 cm by 70 cm by 100 cm high. The terrarium is provided with sand and pebbles as substrate, an outlet for drainage, windows for ventilation, earthen roof tiles for the frogs to hide under, live plants and logs of wood; water (3 cm deep) occupies 40% of the floor area. The tank is cleaned every day, the water replaced, and temperature and humidity recorded. Water is sprayed three times a day in order to maintain humidity at all times. The terrarium very much resembles the natural habitat of the species. The frogs spend most of the day under the tiles, as though in rock crevices, but appear to come out for a while at least five times a day.

The frogs are fed on alternate days with a variety of live invertebrates. Prior to offering the food, it is dusted with Agrimin and Ossopan, mineral and amino acid mixtures, to avoid deficiency problems. Food is always offered at dusk, and the frogs have never shown any difficulties in feeding. Their diet consists of house crickets (Acheta domesticus), field crickets (Gryllus spp.), grasshoppers (Cyrtracanthacris ranacea), earthworms and termites. On several occasions a frog has been seen consuming an entire earthworm about 120 cm long within a period of eight or ten minutes. With the exception of the house crickets, which are captive-bred, all the food for the frogs is collected from the zoo site, which has an abundant invertebrate population.

To assess the animals' growth rate, regular morphometries are carried out using a vernier caliper and an electronic weighing balance. Details of individual body weight and snout–vent length gains are shown in Table 1.

Breeding

Very little is known about the breeding habits of the species. Annadale (1915) collected tadpoles from a forest pool in Kerala in September. Daniels (1992c) reported that L. keralensis bred well in a pool, and laid eggs during January to April. Metamorphosis takes place in 60 days. During the present study eggs were retained in situ. No cannibalism was observed.

The first calling was heard in January and February 1998, and in late February amplexus attempts were observed. On 23 March 1998, at 0800 hours, we saw a female laying more than 700 eggs in strings with jelly on the water surface. While laying her eggs she rested on the sand substrate. Soon after the eggs were laid, all the frogs were removed to another terrarium, and the eggs were left in place. The ambient temperature outside the terrarium during the day was recorded as 27° C and humidity was 68%. The eggs were black, with moderate jelly. On the first day they stuck to the jelly, but on day 2 they were dispersed and occupied about 70% of the water surface. Unfortunately, none of them showed any development, and on the 15th day the terrarium was cleaned out. It is thought that the eggs must have been unfertilised.

 

Table 1. Body weight and snout–vent length recorded in Limnonectes keralensis reared at Coimbatore Zoo during 1997–98.

 

Month

Weight (gm)

SVL (mm)

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

June 1997

*

*

*

*

48.0

49.5

49.6

46.4

July 1997

8.9

10.2

7.8

7.2

48.3

49.6

49.9

46.9

October 1997

9.0

-

7.7

7.3

48.7

-

52.0

47.1

December 1997

9.4

-

9.5

8.9

49.3

-

52.2

47.8

February 1998

10.6

-

11.4

9.3

49.6

-

53.0

48.7

 

Individuals a, b and c are female, individual d is male

Female b died after 80 days

* = not recorded

 

Discussion

Despite the failure to reproduce successfully on this occasion, it has been shown that verrucose frogs will breed in a pool. One of the secrets of breeding success could be the creation of appropriate habitat in the enclosure. The existing set-up in our terrarium is undergoing some alterations, but seems good for exhibiting frogs. Another concern in the breeding and management of verrucose frogs is their feeding requirements. Research is under way into the special care needed once eggs are laid. We also intend to monitor the frogs closely for any external or internal fungal infections. Careful health screening is imperative for all individual frogs as well as for any eggs laid.

Conclusion

Successful husbandry of the verrucose frog requires good nutrition, suitable exhibit design, and a compatible breeding pair or group. Exhibiting and breeding is important to the species, because a captive breeding population could help to maintain genetic diversity and, if necessary, serve as a hedge against extinction in the wild and offer the possibility of re-establishing a wild population in its native habitats.

Acknowledgments

I am grateful to the Gerald Durrell Memorial Fund, Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust, for all financial support, and to Dr John E. Fa and Mr Reese Lind for encouragement and support. My thanks to Dr R.J. Ranjit Daniels of M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation, Dr Indraneil Das of the Centre for Herpetology, and Dr M.S. Ravichandran of the Zoological Survey of India (Southern Region) for species identification, literature and comments. Thanks also to Mr G. Rangaswamy for providing all logistical support, and to Animal Keeper R. Kaliswamy for his continued help.

Products mentioned in the text

Agrimin multi-mineral powder, manufactured by Glaxo India Ltd, India.

Ossopan calcium-phosphorous mineral compound, manufactured by TTK Pharma Ltd, India.

References

Annadale, N.A. (1915): Some undescribed tadpoles from the hills of southern India. Rec. Indian Mus. 15: 17–25.

Daniels, R.J.R. (1992a): Range extension in some south Indian amphibians. Hamadryad 17: 40–42.

Daniels, R.J.R. (1992b): Geographical range and ecology of the verrucose frog Rana keralensis Dubois. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 89: 191–203.

Daniels, R.J.R. (1992c): Captive breeding of anurans. Hamadryad 17: 46–48.

Dutta, S.K. (1992): Amphibians of India: updated species list with distribution record. Hamadryad 17: 1–13.

Gupta, B.K. (1998): Captive Care of Common Indian Frogs and Toads. Coimbatore Zoological Park and Conservation Centre. (28 pp.)

Heyer, W.R., Donnelly, M.A., McDiarmid, R.W., Hayek, L.-A.C., and Foster, M.S. (eds.) (1994): Measuring and Monitoring Biological Diversity: Standard Methods for Amphibians. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

Inger, R.F., Shaffer, B., Koshy, M., and Bakdi, R. (1984): A report on a collection of amphibians and reptiles from the Ponmudi, Kerala, south India. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 81: 406–427.

Inger, R.F., and Dutta, S.K. (1986): An overview of the amphibian fauna of India. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 83: 135–146.

Address for correspondence: Brij Kishor Gupta, 133 New Adarsh Nagar, Balkeshwar, Agra 282 004, India.



BOOK REVIEWS

CONSERVATION OF ENDANGERED SPECIES IN CAPTIVITY: AN INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH edited by Edward F. Gibbons, Jr., Barbara S. Durrant, and Jack Demarest. State University of New York Press, 1995. xiv + 810 pp., hardback (also available in paperback). ISBN 0–7914–1911–8. $34.95.

SECOND NATURE: ENVIRONMENTAL ENRICHMENT FOR CAPTIVE ANIMALS edited by David J. Shepherdson, Jill D. Mellen and Michael Hutchins. Smithsonian Institution Press, 1998. xx + 350 pp., hardback. ISBN 1–56098–745–6. or £25.25. [U.K. orders to University Presses Marketing, The Old Mill, Mill Street, Wantage, Oxon. OX12 9AB (Tel.: 01235–766662; Fax: 01235–766545). For ordering information for other countries, contact: Brenda Tucker, Marketing Department, S.I.P., 470 L'Enfant Plaza, Suite 7100, Washington, D.C. 20560, U.S.A. Tel.: (202) 287–3738 Ex. 343; Fax: (202) 287–3184. E-mail: btucker@sipress.si.edu]

Until quite recently, most of the printed information important to professional zoo people has appeared in periodical publications – the Yearbook, Zoo Biology and others. But the last few years have seen the welcome addition of a number of `one-off' books on zoo topics, usually compiled from contributions by leading figures in the zoo world. The two volumes under review fit into this category; and their subjects are sufficiently broad to make them necessary reading for virtually anyone with a serious interest in zoos: conservation through captive breeding is one of the most important functions of the modern zoo, and environmental enrichment is increasingly recognised as essential to the well-being of zoo animals.

The contributors to Conservation of Endangered Species in Captivity do not, of course, see captive breeding as a panacea: many of them stress that it is only one facet of a strategy in which in situ conservation must remain the ultimate goal. They do, however, recognise that `with the ever increasing rate of habitat destruction, it is likely that the number of species conserved through ex situ efforts will increase in future.' It is one of the virtues of this book that it covers the entire animal kingdom; of its 28 chapters, four each are allotted to invertebrates, fishes, reptiles and amphibians, birds, marine mammals, primates and the rest of the mammals. The weighting in favour of mammals no doubt reflects to some extent the relative emphasis that has been given to them over the years; but the inclusion of the other taxa makes the book an admirably comprehensive overview. Obviously, the importance of captive breeding differs from one group to another: for example, in the case of invertebrates it has been used mainly for `crisis intervention', of which the Partula snail programme is a typical example.

A major value of the book lies in its commitment to the `interdisciplinary approach' of its subtitle. (It is significant that of its 44 contributors, only 18 or so actually work in zoos.) The four chapters in each taxonomic section focus on the same four areas or `disciplines' – conservation, reproductive physiology, behaviour and the design of captive environments. Combining these with three others – genetics, nutrition, and veterinary medicine – explored in existing books, say the editors, `comprises the interdisciplinary foundation necessary to build self-sustaining captive populations.' The systematic structure of the book makes it exceptionally pleasant to use and easy to move around in: the parallelism between the chapters in each section even extends to their organisation under similar headings and subheadings, encouraging the reader to make comparisons within disciplines and between taxonomic groups. The arrangement of the references is another reader-friendly feature which future multi-authored books would do well to follow: instead of being dispersed piecemeal after each chapter, they are all collected into a single list at the end. This both saves space, since in books of this kind the same `classic' papers are frequently cited by numerous contributors, and simplifies the task of any reader trying to locate a particular reference.

The term `environmental enrichment' is so familiar to zoo people today that it is hard to remember how recently it entered our vocabulary. (My impression is that it was first used in the late 1970s – perhaps some reader will be able to tell me the exact date – and only gradually prevailed over a number of synonyms such as `environmental engineering' and `behavioural enrichment'.) The concept itself, of course, existed long before there was a special name for it, and was familiar to such enlightened zoo directors of the past as Hagenbeck and Hediger. But within the last 20 years there has been a boom in the practice of environmental enrichment (at least in the better sort of zoo – probably, indeed, its presence provides as reliable a yardstick as any for distinguishing `good' zoos from the rest).

Much of the credit for this expansion should go to the keepers, thanks to their intimate knowledge of their animals' needs, and their practical skill at contriving ingenious, low-cost solutions. As a result, though, published material on enrichment has tended towards the anecdotal and unsystematic. The present book is, I think, the first to provide a theoretical framework for a science of environmental enrichment. Another frequent complaint has been the preponderance of work on the primates: here, too, Second Nature marks an advance, with chapters on ungulates, marine mammals, and amphibians and reptiles. (I was disappointed, though, to see no special treatment of enrichment for birds, five years after Cathy King's pioneering article in Zoo Biology 12, pp. 509–512.)

Environmental enrichment is not just about making zoo animals happier and healthier (though that would in itself be sufficient justification). It has implications for conservation too, when it helps to prepare captive-bred individuals for reintroduction to the wild. Two chapters of Second Nature develop this theme with special reference to black-footed ferrets and golden lion tamarins. Interestingly, it may not be simply a matter of developing specific skills and behaviours; several contributors claim that an enriched captive environment, especially when animals are young, can actually bring about beneficial neural changes that can increase problem-solving abilities in later life. I should add, though, that experimental evidence, also published here, has not yet established a firm link between an enriched captive environment and improved survival rates after reintroduction. This is still a very young science, and much research remains to be done. But Second Nature provides an informative introduction, as well as offering some pointers to future developments.

Nicholas Gould



CONSERVATION

AZA Bonobo SSP Update

In January 1998, the Zoological Society of Milwaukee County (ZSM) conducted a brief but important expedition to the Salonga National Park in the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire); this in situ research project was undertaken at the behest of the AZA Bonobo SSP. Established in 1970, the Salonga National Park is the only federally-protected reserve for wild bonobos, and is listed as a World Heritage Site due to its high level of biodiversity. Despite the fact that this nine-million-acre (3,640,000 ha) rainforest was set aside to protect bonobos, it has never been determined if they exist there in sustainable numbers. Thus, the value of the park for the protection of the species remains unknown.

The bonobo (Pan paniscus) ranks among the top ten animal species of greatest conservation concern in Africa due to habitat loss and hunting pressure. It is estimated that at least 25% of the bonobo's present range falls within commercial logging concessions. Considering the need for economic development, widespread exploitation of the Congo's interior rainforests is imminent. Assessment of bonobo numbers within the Salonga is therefore critical in determining whether a significant population exists there, and to what extent additional bonobo reserves are needed elsewhere in the Congo. Toward this end, in November 1997 ZSM formed a collaboration with the Congolese Institute for the Conservation of Nature (ICCN).

Last December, a reconnaissance team reached the Salonga after traveling for several days by dugout, and determined that a full-scale survey is feasible in this remote area. Working with the ICCN, the team systematically searched for evidence of bonobo populations and identified areas to be sampled more intensively in the future. The team consistently encountered evidence of bonobo (food remains, footprints, and sleeping nests), as well as evidence of forest elephant, bongo and several rare species of monkey. Heavy poaching pressure was strongly indicated. The reconnaissance team was led by E. Van Krunkelsven (Royal Zoological Society of Antwerp) and I. Bila-Isia (ZSM), a Congolese field scientist who is directing the project in the Congo.

Based on the success of the reconnaissance, ZSM is now mounting a full-scale survey of the park, in collaboration with ICCN and Zoo Atlanta. The objectives of the project are (1) to assess the status of bonobos in the Salonga, and (2) to train Congolese field biologists in survey methodology to conduct the Salonga survey and other needed faunal surveys.

Adapted from James Mills and Gay Reinartz in AZA Communiqué (September 1998)

[For further details of the Zoological Society of Milwaukee County's involvement in bonobo conservation, see the article by Gay Reinartz and James Mills in I.Z.N. 43:5, pp. 293–298. – Ed.]

Hope for the puaiohi

In a rush against extinction, biologists at the Peregrine Fund's Keauhou Bird Conservation Center in Hawaii have successfully bred the puaiohi (Myadestes palmeri). This first-ever event provides hope for this critically endangered species, whose population is estimated at about 150 individuals. The first hatch occurred in March 1998, and 24 chicks have hatched so far this season. The young birds are expected to be released in early 1999 into managed areas of the `Alaka`i Swamp where the species used to occur. The work to save the puaiohi is part of a larger program initiated in 1994 which focuses on all the endangered forest birds in Hawaii.

As well as the Peregrine Fund, the program involves a number of governmental organizations and private landowners. Restoration efforts include monitoring of the wild population, protection of nests, managed propagation and reintroduction. Peregrine Fund biologists began working with the puaiohi in 1996, when several eggs were collected from the wild and successfully hatched. These young formed the nucleus of the managed flock which produced the 1998 chicks. Managed propagation techniques include artificial incubation, hand-rearing and multiple clutching. The propagation and reintroduction techniques used for the puaiohi were initiated by the Fund in 1995 with the `oma`o (M. obscurus), a surrogate and non-endangered congener which was first bred by Houston Zoo in 1994. Reintroduction techniques developed for the `oma`o by the Peregrine Fund in 1996 have established a wild flock which has recently been confirmed to be breeding successfully. These same `hacking' techniques will be utilized for the restoration of the puaiohi. The Zoological Society of San Diego is acknowledged for its generous technical and financial support toward restoration of this endangered species.

AZA Communiqué (September 1998)

Waldrapps in the wild

With about 200 birds, the Souss-Massa region near Agadir in south-west Morocco holds the last known wild breeding population of the waldrapp or northern bald ibis (Geronticus eremita). The cliffs on the Atlantic coast provide inaccessible ledges for nest-sites, and the adjacent coastal belt of dune-steppe and non-intensive agriculture provides suitable habitat for the few remaining birds to search for food. Another small free-flying population exists at Birecik in Turkey, but these have to be fed and taken into captivity each winter. Occasional recent records from the southern end of the Red Sea provoke speculation that another breeding population might still exist, but this may be a forlorn hope.

There are many reasons for the species' decline, including hunting, habitat loss, human disturbance at breeding sites and, most disastrously, pesticide poisoning. In May 1996, 40 of the Moroccan birds died in nine days; despite analyses and tests, the cause remains a mystery, but poisoning from an obscure source remains a possibility, and the incident shows how vulnerable the population is.

Souss-Massa National Park holds just over half the Moroccan birds, with the rest in another coastal area 100 km further north at Tamri. The park was created in 1991 with the waldrapp in mind, and they use most of its length at different times of the year. It is a coastal strip 5–10 km wide and 75 km long (area 33,800 ha). In 1994 BirdLife International joined with the Moroccan authorities to undertake a research programme that would identify the actions needed to conserve the ibis, and it was agreed that these would then be incorporated into the park's management plan. The research priorities were to find out where the birds feed, roost and breed, and to identify what critical features make them suitable. This has involved following the birds to their feeding grounds, mapping those areas, and recording vegetation and land use. The breeding cliffs have been studied to see whether more sites should be created and kept free from disturbance.

Perhaps the most important activity has been monitoring every breeding attempt, and recording laying, hatching, fledging and all predation or disturbance that might have an adverse effect on breeding productivity. Local villagers have been engaged and trained to warden sites and to collect much of the monitoring data, and awareness and pride in the ibis in the adjacent villages has grown.

Research has already identified some of the factors that lead to lower productivity, such as cormorants which disrupted one colony by competing for nest sites. But there are indications that more chicks die due to insufficient food supply. This year we've intervened by persuading the cormorants to breed elsewhere, and we are considering supplying extra food at the critical period in May when the majority of chicks perish. Enormous care is needed to avoid introducing other risks or disrupting natural behaviour, but with such a precariously small population, such measures may be enough at least to help them recover from the latest setback.

One of the our first actions was to modify cliff ledges at one breeding site to provide more potential nest sites. The extended ledges remained unoccupied until this year, when birds finally moved in, but only from another nearby site. We now know that nest sites are not limiting, but this has demonstrated the scope for future management should present breeding cliffs become unsuitable or collapse, or if we are successful in increasing the number of birds. Monitoring at the major roost-site away from the breeding colonies has shown that fencing the area off may be the only way to tackle the problem of human disturbance, and we are currently doing this. Similar measures are planned for some of the breeding sites. A growing threat is that nearby Agadir is a major tourist centre, and there are plans for more hotel developments in the area, including one for a site beside an important ibis feeding area. The park will need to extend and broaden its education programme to gain more general support to prevent future habitat loss.

Plans to promote eco-tourism within the park are under way, to direct the benefits towards local people. These plans will include the ibis, but only at the feeding areas, and decisions have yet to be taken on how this will be done with no risk of disturbing breeding or roosting birds. Unfortunately, disturbance at the breeding sites by visiting birdwatchers is a real threat. As well as direct disturbance, tourists are often followed by local people, leading to yet more human activity near the site. Luckily, most birdwatchers understand these problems, and look for birds responsibly in their feeding areas described in birding guidebooks. Few people who stay for a full day go away disappointed, and the birds are often very easy to see. We are planning to provide more guidelines for birders as part of the eco-tourism programme, and to promote ways in which they can buy produce locally.

Two years on from the death of 40 birds in 1996, the population has shown no signs of recovering, but remains at the reduced lower level. With increasing local and national awareness, and the actions under way or planned for the future, there is renewed hope that this last wild bald ibis population will continue to inhabit this spectacular part of Morocco.

Abridged from Chris Bowden, leader of the Bald Ibis Programme in Morocco, in World Birdwatch (June 1998)



ANNUAL REPORTS

CHESTER ZOO, U.K.

Extracts from the 1997 Zoo Review

Mammals (by Nicholas Ellerton, Curator of Mammals)

With the Asiatic elephants, 1997 provided us with both `highs' and `lows'. The death of the calf Karha in May saddened us all. However, this should not overshadow the successes. Upali, a two-year-old bull born in Zürich, arrived in May bringing with him hope for the future. A female calf, Sithami, was born on 31 December to Thi-Hi-Way, who is on long-term loan from London Zoo. Thi is proving to be an excellent mother with this calf. Jangoli is also pregnant, and we are all hoping that she too will make a good mother. Indeed, 1998 may provide us with three elephant calves, all sired by Chang, who is on loan to us from Copenhagen Zoo. The other two prospective calves are from Tonzi and Mimbu, mated by Chang and now returned home to Twycross Zoo.

Perhaps even better than an elephant, in conservation terms, was the birth of the female black rhino Kitani. The dam Pangani, on loan from Zürich, has been a somewhat shy mother, preferring to stay inside rather than show off her calf. The Asiatic lions gave us a welcome problem with four (1.3) cubs being born in August – an interbirth gap of only 15 months when 22 is normal. The three 1996 male cubs were sent to Rhenen in the Netherlands in October. Provision will be made earlier for the outplacement of cubs in the future. Our Asiatic lions have been an extremely successful pair, with the male, Jake, siring 13 surviving cubs. His brief visit to London Zoo in September 1996 resulted in three cubs being born there.

Oscar, the male Sumatran orang-utan, was sent to Liberec Zoo in the Czech Republic and has settled well with a new female. The Sumatran male from Perth, Australia, has integrated well with our females and 1998 should provide us with some babies – our last Sumatran orang birth was in 1987. Sadly, in May the young Bornean orang-utan Weston died suddenly of a meningeal infection. Our male Bornean, Sibu, was returned from Blackpool in October and the `overly successful' male Oscar will be moved to Moscow Zoo. Our greatest achievement for the primates was the completion of the new Monkey Islands, a world-class exhibit where the monkeys enjoy considerable space both inside and outside. There are four main enclosures which allow us to hold large groups of primates in a naturalistic way. A new species to Chester are the mandrills, who share their enclosure with a small group of grivet monkeys.

Other new arrivals include a pair of maned wolves and a pair of babirusa. The latter have been mixed with the anoas, as both species come from the same region.

Birds (by Dr Roger Wilkinson, Curator of Birds, with additional material from the Spring 1998 issue of Chester Zoo Life)

In total, 87 species hatched chicks in 1997, from which 262 chicks of 72 species were successfully reared.

In the parrot collection, our most important breeding in 1997 was that of the endangered red-tailed amazon (A. brasiliensis). Our pair arrived in 1995, and this was their first breeding attempt; we were delighted when two strong chicks fledged in late July. Unfortunately one died shortly after fledging, and the post mortem indicated a most unusual parasite, Besnoitia, as the cause of death. This is the first time this species has been bred at Chester, and to our knowledge the first breeding by red-tailed amazons on public display in any zoo. Other parrots bred in 1997 included two Illiger's macaws (a first for Chester), four red-fronted macaws, three green-cheeked and four Cuban amazons, three blue-eyed cockatoos, a thick-billed parrot, four Derbyan parakeets, a splendid parakeet and two yellow-backed chattering lories. Important new arrivals included red-and-blue lories, a pair of Leadbeater's cockatoos, two black-cheeked lovebirds, and two male Mount Apo lorikeets on loan from Loro Parque to join our two females.

Mountain peacock pheasants were bred for the first time at Chester in 1997. A young male Congo peafowl reared by its parents was allowed to remain with them whilst they incubated a later clutch of eggs; three chicks were hatched, which the half-grown male helped to look after. Other galliformes bred included satyr tragopans, Himalayan monals, Palawan peacock pheasants, golden pheasants, Lady Amherst's pheasants, roulroul and red-legged partridges and Chinese painted quail.

The red-crowned cranes hatched and reared one chick, and two West African crowned cranes were foster-reared by bantams. The little egrets in the `Europe on the Edge' exhibit were unsuccessful in rearing chicks in 1996, so this year we took their eggs for artificial incubation and hand-rearing; two chicks were hand-reared before a pair successfully hatched and reared their own chick. The waldrapp ibis reared seven chicks. The European black vultures again spent weeks on their nest, but no eggs were laid; perhaps they will be stimulated into reproductive activity next year by the arrival this winter of a pair of European griffon vultures on loan from Bristol.

Caribbean and Chilean flamingos were both very late in starting to nest. A dry spring which did not encourage nesting behaviour was followed by a June so wet that when eggs were laid they sat in small pools of water in the nest depressions. This necessitated our removal of some eggs for artificial incubation, replacing them with dummies and then returning them prior to hatching. Although two Caribbean chicks hatched, neither survived, and of four Chileans hatched, only one survived, giving us our poorest year with flamingos since 1990. Our success in breeding Humboldt's penguins over the last few years has resulted in them being so well represented in other European zoos that we agreed not to hand-rear any chicks in 1997. All chicks were left with their parents, resulting in three parent-reared youngsters. Waterfowl reared in 1997 included Hawaiian geese, ruddy shelduck, Cuban whistling ducks, smew, red-crested pochard, Laysan and marbled teal, Chiloe wigeon, common shelduck, mandarin duck and, for the first time at Chester, Meller's ducks, falcated teal and garganey.

Nicobar pigeons, Luzon bleeding heart doves, speckled pigeons, crested bronzewings and rock doves were bred. Four red turtle doves were received from the Tropical Bird Gardens, Rode. Two spectacled owls and one barn owl were raised. The white-faced scops owls have reared many youngsters over the last few years. We followed the studbook coordinator's request to split this pair, resulting in no breeding in 1997; although a new female was introduced to the breeding male, these showed little interest in each other. Two tawny frogmouths and two kookaburras were reared.

We had a less successful year with hornbills. The great Indian hornbills mudded up, but the female emerged without evidence of egg laying. Wrinkled and trumpeter hornbills hatched chicks but these failed to fledge and only one African grey hornbill was reared. Turacos were more successful, with three Schalow's turacos and one violet plantain-eater reared. Four red-billed magpies were reared by their parents, and two Bali starlings hand-reared. Neither pair of superb spreo starlings were successful in raising young; all four birds have been in the collection between 13 and 14 years and were adult when received. Our longest-living passerine is a red-billed quelea received as an adult in 1978 which must now be at least 20 years old.

A plumbeous redstart was hand-reared, and emerald starlings, red-eared bulbuls, Pekin robins, silver-beaked tanagers, white-rumped shamas, Mexican house finches, zebra finches and red-cheeked cordon-bleus all reared chicks.

Herpetofauna (by Keith Brown, Herpetologist)

Further work was carried out on environmental improvements for our reptiles and amphibians. As well as the main reptile exhibit area, there were additional works for the alligator, Mediterranean tortoise and tuatara exhibits, the last two projects for completion in 1998. The alligator project involved doubling the pool area, and providing more land, caves for the alligators to go into to cool-off during very warm periods, two waterfalls and a rope bridge under a new, simulated Aztec Temple. The enclosure has been designed to benefit the alligators, to be interesting for the public and safer for the keeping staff to work in.

Good breeding results have been achieved with sunbeam snakes (Xenopeltis unicolor), Madagascan tree boas, boa constrictors and Cuban boas, Asian box turtles, sailfin lizards, bearded dragons, Thailand water dragons, tokay geckos, giant Madagascan day geckos and leopard geckos.

The sand lizards emerged from their first hibernation in the new enclosure and all were soon basking and feeding during the sunny days. The plants grew well and we are extremely pleased with the results of a successful hibernation. Although no young were raised, we are confident that given the successful hibernation period and the behaviour shown by the lizards during the spring and summer of 1997, breeding will take place in the enclosure in 1998.

Among land invertebrates, various species of stick insects, fruit beetles and African praying mantis have bred extremely well and we are continually trying to improve their environments. The Partula snails are still increasing in numbers, and if another release plan is implemented in 1998, we hope that some more of our stock can be returned to their native habitat.

Aquarium (by Mike Crumpler, Aquarist)

Banggai cardinal fish (Pterapogon kauderni) and fire clown fish (Amphiprion ephippium) have been reared; the clown fish are second generation and live in sea anemones, also bred here. The seahorses are still breeding well, and offspring have been sent to the zoo aquaria at Madrid, London and Whipsnade, the new London Aquarium and the new Birmingham Sea Life Centre. London and Madrid Zoos have been successful in breeding from this stock. We sent rare Lake Victoria cichlids (Haplochromis pyrrhocephalus) to Wuppertal Zoo to spread the risks.

A livebearing species, the golden saw-finned goodeid (Skiffia francesae) has been acquired from the livebearer study group `Viviparous'. It has been long extinct in Mexico. Our stock originally came from Detroit Zoo aquarium in March, and twelve specimens have now bred to over 100. We hope to help with a reintroduction programme based on field contacts developed by the Director, Gordon McGregor Reid, in central Mexico.

Staff attended Fish and Aquatic Invertebrate TAG meetings. Two new FAITAG groups were formed for Coral and native Crayfish. The Coral TAG held a well-attended seminar here in November entitled `Coral Cultivation – The Way Forward'. Dudley Zoo sent us four young crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes) – rare British freshwater crustaceans – to help us learn their husbandry, with the possibility of English Nature allowing us to stock the new Monkey Islands moats with them.

DENVER ZOO, COLORADO, U.S.A.

Extracts from the Annual Report 1997

Animal Department

In 1997 the Herpetology/Ichthyology Division opened a six-month special exhibit, Electric Fishes, which included eight aquaria showcasing various electric species, as well as sophisticated electronic displays and a live feeding demonstration of the electric eel. It was very popular with visitors.

Several exhibits in Tropical Discovery were modified. New marine aquaria included a chambered nautilus tank, the enlargement of our live coral tank, and a tank converted to house sea horses, pipefish and shrimpfish. We changed one cypress terrarium to house hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis), a new species for the zoo. Two major reptile exhibits were created, one for three Chinese alligators, and one to house three endangered Cuban rock iguanas and three female radiated tortoises. This required the addition of 2,000 watts of radiant heaters and heat lamps to make this a comfortable home for these heat-loving species.

One of the most significant reproductions is our continued success with Reimann's snake-neck turtles (Chelodina reimanni). We have produced 52 turtles in all (29 this year), and are the only zoo to breed this species. We are now also becoming more successful with poison-dart frogs, breeding two more species this year. Black pine snakes, emerald tree boas, eyelash vipers, African swamp vipers and tentacled snakes also produced offspring. We hatched over 50 veiled chameleons, and Standing's day geckos continued to produce young. A first breeding in captivity of the juba, a Malagasy cichlid, was very exciting for us. Other significant freshwater fishes reproduced were four-eyed fish and two endangered desert fishes, golden skiffias and Charco La Palma pupfish.

The Large Mammal Division saw the completion of a large outdoor yard for tigers and other big cats. Two red panda exhibits were renovated and given a soil substrate to allow for natural plantings. A giraffe restraint device was installed in the bull stall of the exhibit area to facilitate animal management and medical care of this species. The badly pitted floor of the indoor hippo exhibit was re-surfaced, making sanitation easier as well as easing pressure on the feet of these heavy animals. Two exciting new species were added to the collection toward the end of the year. A young female red river hog, native to the forests of West Africa, came to us from San Diego Zoo. This color variation of the ubiquitous African bush pig is the most beautiful of the wild swine, brick red in color with striking black and white accents on the face. It is quite rare in North American zoos and we hope to acquire a mate for this interesting animal in 1998. Also from San Diego came a Mishmi takin, native to the forests of central China, to enhance our Asian hoofed mammal collection; takin, too, are rarely exhibited in U.S. zoos. Two (1.1) babirusa were born, the first at Denver; the female did not survive, but the male continues to thrive. This was the only successful reproduction of babirusa in North America in 1997. Our okapis reproduced successfully this year, another first at Denver Zoo. The Pallas' cats, imported from Russia in 1996, reproduced in early 1997; although only one of the four kittens survived, she is, nevertheless, the only surviving Pallas' kitten born in the U.S.A. during 1997.

There were several important events in the Bird Division during the year. The staff worked very hard for the successful reproduction of the sunbittern pair in the Rainforest exhibit room. The pair were unsuccessful in their first two nesting attempts, resulting in the death of two chicks. Staff created an improved alternative nest site with a video camera monitoring system. Following these improvements, the pair produced two healthy chicks. In addition, observations recorded using the video equipment were very helpful in improving our knowledge of captive sunbittern nesting behaviour.

There were several first-time hatches for the zoo in 1997, including three Himalayan monals, a red-breasted goose and a palm cockatoo; for various reasons, all these young birds were hand-reared. Several new species arrived at the zoo, including two pairs of Bali mynahs and a group of 14 Chilean flamingos; it is hoped that the larger flamingo group size may stimulate increased nesting behavior and improve reproductive success.

The Seashore exhibit in Bird World was the location of a reproductive management strategy on Egyptian plovers. Keepers provided a heat bar to create a heat gradient in hopes it would re-create the unique nesting environment of this species. The pair produced fertile eggs, but did not successfully hatch chicks. The zoo's parrots were the focus of a nutritional study to examine the feasibility of converting parrots from a seed-based to an avian pellet-based diet (a fruit mix continues to form a portion of the birds' diet).

In 1997, Primate Panorama completed its first full year of operation following the August 1996 public opening. Although the majority of the facilities operated very well, a few modification projects were necessary. Due to the almost total destruction of live plants (trees and shrubs) in the outdoor wire-mesh enclosures, Primate Division staff felt that additional artificial trees were needed. We contracted to have two trees added to the gibbon/leaf monkey enclosure, two to the colobus/mangabey enclosure and one to the macaque enclosure. The Primate Panorama Aviary's animal space was increased, and in the great ape outdoor enclosures more climbing ropes and cargo nets were added and much of the plant-protecting electric fencing was removed.

Due to the 7.2 acres (2.9 ha) that encompasses the Primate Panorama complex of habitats, Denver Zoo maintains one of the largest inventories of primates in North American zoos. By the end of 1997 we housed 162 animals representing 33 species – compare this with 30 years ago, when we held only six species and 30 specimens.

Conservation and Research

In 1997, the Department of Conservation Biology completed its first full year. January saw the hiring of Dr Brian Miller as Conservation Biology Coordinator; with over 17 years of field experience, working largely on threatened and endangered species, and a strong publication record, Dr Miller's appointment was a major boost to the department. During the year, the zoo was involved in over 50 field conservation and research projects in 22 countries, six states and one territory. Our projects focus primarily on islands and arid grassland systems.

Conservation Biology Director Dr Richard Reading continued his involvement in conservation activities in Mongolia, including protected area expansion and conservation management, training Mongolian biologists, and projects on the ecology and conservation of wild Bactrian camels [see I.Z.N. 44:7, pp. 422–423 – Ed.], argali sheep, Mongolian gazelle and kulan.

Dr Miller continued his research on the ecology and conservation of pumas and jaguars in the dry tropical forests of Jalisco, Mexico, his efforts to help establish a North American system of reserves through the Wildlands Project, and education of Mexican biologists.

The zoo was active in a number of West Indian rock iguana (Cyclura spp.) conservation efforts, in particular with Mona Island iguanas (Cyclura cornuta stejnegeri) in Puerto Rico, Anegada iguanas (C. pinguis) in the British Virgin Islands, and White Cay iguanas (C. rileyi cristata) in the Bahamas.

Other field research or conservation projects in which Denver Zoo personnel were involved included a survey of endemic Malagasy fishes, a study of Humboldt's penguins in Chile, research on the nesting ecology of Colorado Buteo hawks, work on the captive-breeding program for the threatened San Clemente Island loggerhead shrike (Lanius ludovicianus mearnsi), a study of mountain plover (Charadrius montanus) ecology in Montana, and an assessment of attitudes toward grizzly bears and wolves in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Important international projects funded included the ecology and conservation of carnivores in Brazil and Botswana, the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund, the Okapi Reserve at Epulu, Congo, the ecology and conservation of Philippine hornbills, the taxonomy of poison dart frogs, and the Hutan Project conservation efforts for orang-utans in Sabah, Malaysia.

Over 25 conservation and research projects were conducted within the zoo. These included studies of assisted reproductive technologies for cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus), population dynamics of the zoo's free-ranging peafowl, exhibit use by Siamese crocodiles, Asian elephant behavior, vitamin content in polar bear blood, skin, and milk, the renal portal systems of snakes, the use of ultrasound to treat arthritis in Asian elephants, browse utilization for selected primate species, artificial supplements in pinniped diets, black rhino blood content and bongo milk content.

Veterinary Medicine

There were some dramatic changes in our Arctic wolf pack, as both the alpha male and female were deposed. On 30 March 1997 Annas, our alpha female, suffered a broken hind leg. The fracture was expertly repaired, and the options were to confine her to cage rest for two or three months or to return her to the pack as soon as possible, so that she might maintain her alpha status. We opted for the latter, but the repair unfortunately did not hold up on her return to the exhibit and she refractured the leg. The new fracture was much more severe and not so amenable to orthopedic repair, so we decided to amputate the leg at the hip. Again, our primary goal was to return her to the pack as soon as possible. Annas was reunited with the pack about two weeks after the surgery, but she had lost her status and was permanently exiled from the pack. Being the alpha animal is usually a `one-way ticket' with no option of returning to the bottom of the list once you are ousted. Annas became depressed, had infections from multiple bite wounds, and was no longer getting up, so she was humanely euthanized. Then, in October, Buddy, the alpha male, was observed to be severely uncoordinated. Radiographs of his lungs showed symptoms compatible with cancer; he was euthanized and found to have a metastatic hemangiosarcoma which probably originated in his spleen. It will be interesting over the next several months to watch the dynamics of the pack as other wolves jockey for the two top spots. Although we will sorely miss Annas and Buddy, this is the natural course of events in wolf society.

In October it was noticed that the female Fiji Island iguana was acting as though she was about to lay eggs. After three weeks there were still no eggs and the veterinary staff became concerned that she was eggbound. Radiography failed to reveal any shelled eggs, but did show several round objects in the abdomen compatible with unshelled eggs, and ultrasonography confirmed this condition. Hormonal therapy failed to induce the iguana to lay and her condition continued to deteriorate, so we decided to perform surgery. At surgery, it was discovered that one of the unshelled eggs had ruptured, spilling its contents into the abdomen and causing a severe inflammation which is frequently fatal. All the egg contents were removed by lavaging the abdomen with large volumes of sterile saline solution, followed by an ovario-hysterectomy. Although this animal will not be able to reproduce in the future, we were delighted that she survived the surgical procedure and went on to make a complete recovery.

In May 1996 we received two pairs of Pallas' cats from the Ukraine. Surprisingly, one pair bred the first winter here and presented us with four kittens in April 1997. One kitten mysteriously disappeared when about two weeks of age, and at around six weeks two others started showing signs of severe neurologic disease. The eventual diagnosis was encephalitis, and both kittens eventually succumbed to the disease. Necropsy and histopathology showed the culprit to be toxoplasmosis, a ubiquitous coccidian parasite. Toxoplasmosis is contracted by ingesting the parasite's eggs in contaminated feces or ingestion of the cyst form in meat. The source for our kittens is a matter of conjecture – through the milk, while in the placenta, or from contaminated meat during weaning? The domestic cat is known to be the definitive host for this parasite and is usually unaffected. It has been assumed that exotic felids are also definitive hosts. Toxoplasmosis experts were baffled as to why our kittens were so severely affected. The remaining kitten, Pat, was removed from the exhibit and hand-reared at the hospital; it never showed any signs of disease and was eventually successfully returned to the exhibit. The Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Colorado State University has recovered the organism from the deceased kittens, and has been conducting a series of research projects which will probably result in a publication.

The veterinary staff has become deeply involved in a concerted effort to identify and attempt to eliminate several diseases in our avian collection. Since February, 75 birds have undergone physical examinations, blood sampling, radiography and liver biopsies. The liver biopsies have helped to identify individuals infected with Mycobacterium avium, a bacteria related to the one which causes tuberculosis in humans. In birds, M. avium causes an insidious disease resulting in weight loss, infertility and eventual death. The bacteria most commonly affects the liver, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract. The birds examined to date have ranged in weight from 13 grams to three kilograms, with the majority less than 70 grams. Six cases of mycobacteriosis have been discovered following liver biopsies. This program will be continuing in 1998, as our goal is to try to eradicate the disease from some key areas in the bird collection.

On 29 October 1997 Tarzan, our male sloth, died. For several years we had been following his progress because of an interesting bony proliferation we had noted on radiography. It was particularly evident in his rib cage. We had gone so far as to try to obtain a bone marrow sample with help from doctors at St Joseph's Hospital in Denver, but this attempt was unfortunately unsuccessful. During necropsy it became strikingly evident why a bone marrow biopsy would be so difficult to obtain: Tarzan virtually had no bone marrow space, because it had been almost completely replaced by cortical bone. Our friends at the hospital forwarded radiographs and necropsy materials to the Mayo Clinic for further evaluation. The working diagnosis is a rare inherited human and animal disorder known as osteopetrosis. In animals, it has also been reported in cattle and the domestic dog on rare occasions. This case is interesting enough that it will be the featured presentation in April 1998 at the Clinical Pathology Conference at St Joseph's Hospital.


I.Z.N. Back Numbers and Binders

Only about half of the back issues from 26:1 (No. 157, Jan./Feb. 1979) to 39:8 (No. 241, Dec. 1992) are still in print; they are available at £1.00 ($2.00) each post free. (Nos 159, 162–3, 165, 169–172, 175–6, 178, 181, 183–4, 186, 188–9, 195, 197–205, 210, 212–15, 217–9, 223–8 and 231 are now out of print.) Issues from 40:1 (No. 242, Jan./Feb. 1993) to 42:8 (No. 265, December 1995) are available at £4.00 ($8.00) each; nos. 246, 249, 253 and 257 are out of print. Issues from 43:1 (No. 266, Jan./Feb. 1996) on are available only as part of a full year's subscription. A list of past feature articles is available on request. Photocopies of entire out-of-print issues can be supplied for a charge of £2.00 ($4.00) each, including postage.

Binders to hold a year's issues, bound in dark green simulated leather material, with `IZN' and our lemur logo in gold on the spine, are available at £4.00 (U.K. only) or £4.50 ($9) overseas, postage and packing included. Send your order with a cheque for the correct amount to I.Z.N., 80 Cleveland Road, Chichester, West Sussex PO19 2HF, U.K.



INTERNATIONAL ZOO NEWS

Adelaide Zoo, South Australia

Staff at the zoo and the Adelaide Botanic Gardens have been working together on a biological control that should help save many of the plants in the Botanic Gardens' Bicentennial Conservatory. This opened nine years ago and now attracts 100,000 visitors a year to its tropical plant display. However, one visitor, the palm dart butterfly, is causing real problems. The butterflies' caterpillars have invaded the conservatory and reached plague proportions, steadily chewing their way through a range of palms that are the dominant trees in the display. The tallest branches are reduced to skeletons and the lower fronds wither to an unsightly brown. As the policy is to use only biological controls in the conservatory, the Gardens and Adelaide Zoo cooperated to find a suitable bird control.

After considerable discussion and trials at the zoo, the white-browed woodswallow (Artamus superciliosus) was chosen. Five specimens were acclimatised in a small aviary within the conservatory for two weeks, before being released on 31 March. The birds initially refused to eat from the food stands placed at ground level, so these were relocated to high points at each end of the building and then gradually lowered when the birds were eating regularly from them. Thereafter they started working over the debilitated trees looking for grubs. Zoo watchers observed the birds over the next two months, noting that about 20 grubs were consumed weekly. Later watches showed butterflies being chased and caught. Although it is early days, the results are very promising so far.

Zoo Times Vol. 15, No. 2 (1998)

Australian Reptile Park, Somersby, New South Wales, Australia

The park recently celebrated its 50th anniversary. The tourism advantages gained by its translocation from Gosford to a new, bushland environment have been solid. After nearly two years of trading, visitor numbers continue to exceed traditional monthly and yearly figures by about 60%, and revenue has approximately doubled. The improved financial position has allowed a growing involvement in ARAZPA TAG activities.

A working relationship has been established with the Threatened Species Unit of the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, assisting, at their request, in the conservation of the Central Coast's only two remaining populations of the green-and-golden bell frog (Litoria aurea). The Unit has also given its support, in principle, to the establishment of representative, genetically-discrete populations of other rapidly declining frog species that occur in the region. A rescue plan for the Avoca Lakes population of the green-and-golden bell frog has been established. The population at North Avoca, a former stronghold for the species, was estimated to be fewer than a dozen in early 1998, when the Park was licensed to collect all remaining specimens. Eight were captured – all from a single residential backyard garden – for captive maintenance and breeding purposes. It is intended to produce an F1 population in the coming summer that will represent the widest genetic variation possible within the constraints of such a small sample. Breeding will then be put on hold indefinitely while solutions to the causal factors are sought (principally, lack of breeding areas free of the introduced mosquito fish Gambusia sp.). The frogs are maintained in aviary-type enclosures; they are very healthy, and pairs can be `swapped' as required for genetic planning. The Park has also been working with local residents in the area surrounding the capture site; the aim is to encourage the development of frog-friendly gardens and appropriately vegetated ponds where frog spawn or tadpoles may, at some future date, be introduced as a recovery measure for the population.

Following the discovery of the critically-endangered Papuan black snake (Pseudechis papuanus) on Saibai Island, the northernmost Torres Strait island, situated four km off the Papuan coast, the Reptile Park has obtained permits to collect 20 founder specimens for the establishment of a captive-breeding nucleus. Saibai may be the last stand for the species, as it appears to be the only cane-toad-free area inhabited by this frog-loving species. [The cane toad (Bufo marinus), a South American species widely introduced throughout the tropics, is notorious as a predator on native amphibian species. – Ed.] The specimens will be placed in numerous institutions represented on ARAZPA's Reptile TAG, as a safety net for the species, while the business of educating the Saibai people on the need to protect their fauna from the spread of cane toads can begin.

Abridged from John Weigel in ARAZPA Newsletter No. 39 (August 1998)

Bristol Zoo, U.K.

The zoo is providing vital funds to save gorillas in Cameroon, where they are threatened by habitat destruction and the `bushmeat' trade. Baby gorillas and chimpanzees are victims of this trade; if a mother ape is killed for meat, the infant is taken alive and sold to be a pet. Most of these orphans die within days or weeks from starvation and neglect, unless they are rescued by the Cameroon Wildlife Aid Fund (CWAF) at Yaounde Zoo.

Money from Bristol Zoo is currently being channelled through the CWAF project which aims (1) to improve the welfare of the animals at Yaounde Zoo, which acts as a rescue centre for confiscated primates, including baby gorillas and chimps, (2) to provide the base for an education centre devoted to conservation issues, and (3) to advise on wider conservation issues affecting animals in their natural habitats.

Dr Bryan Carroll, the zoo's operations manager, has just returned from a fact-finding mission to Cameroon. He says, `I went to Cameroon to see the effects of conservation funding provided by Bristol Zoo and to see first-hand the problems affecting the conservation of gorillas and other primates in the wild. I was very impressed with the work that has been done so far to improve the conditions of the animals at Yaounde Zoo, where animals had become neglected as a result of lack of funds. Without our support this vital project would not survive.'

Bristol Zoo urgently needs help in order to support the project further. With additional funding, we can extend our work to help more orphaned apes, provide education facilities and equipment for a new conservation centre, and carry on talking to local people in order to combat the slaughter of the bushmeat trade. Donations to support the project can be sent to Bristol Zoo Gardens, Freepost BS3574, Clifton, Bristol BS8 3BR, U.K.

Chessington World of Adventures (Chessington Zoo), Surrey, U.K.

Chessington is home to Sealion Bay, one of the largest pinniped exhibits in the U.K., with 1,000,000 litres of water. In addition to the main exhibit we have a good-sized beaching area and a training pool with salt water. Work is expected to begin shortly on a second training/dry area. The Californian sea lion population increased by four with the birth of 3.1 pups this June. The first, Orion, was pulled for hand-raising as Ursa, his mother, ceased lactating after five days; but despite a good start he unfortunately died at six weeks from peritonitis. On a more positive note the other pups, Logan, Zak and Phoebe, are progressing well and interacting with their older siblings. The Sealion Bay population now (27 August 1998) stands at 5.7 animals ranging from 24 years to six weeks. By the time this information goes to press we should have received a two-year-old male from Dublin Zoo in exchange for our three-year-old female. We are expecting to part with 2.0 1997-born pups in the near future. These animals are target-, gate- and station-trained, and between them have a good repertoire of husbandry and presentation behaviours. If anyone wants further information on these animals, please contact Luke Gates, Animal Presentations, Zoological Dept., CWOA, Leatherhead Road, Surrey, KT9 2NE, or via e-mail (lgdn@pinnipedia.demon.co.uk).

The bird presentations continue to develop, with free-flying kookaburras, barn owls, Harris' hawk, European buzzard, lanner falcon, domestic fowl, Patagonian conures and a blue-and-yellow macaw. The most noteworthy achievement in the Bird Garden was the successful breeding of two southern pied hornbill (Anthracoceros albirostris convexus) chicks, who fledged in early July. This is the second successful breeding at Chessington and in the U.K. Other notable hatchings this season include 0.0.3 black-capped lories (Lorius lory erythrothorax), 0.0.9 Puna ibis, 0.0.1 green-winged macaw, 2.1 red-sided eclectus (Eclectus roratus polychloros) and 0.0.4 satyr tragopan. Bali starlings have been hatching but so far have been unsuccessful in rearing chicks to fledging. Notable arrivals include 0.0.4 hammerkops, 0.1 toco toucan and 1.1 perfect lorikeets. Our last 2.0 scarlet ibis left the collection for Gatwick Zoo to increase the size of the breeding group there.

In April ABWAK held a two-day pinniped symposium hosted by Whipsnade Wild Animal Park, which attracted nearly 50 delegates. The guest speaker was Dr Andrew Greenwood of the International Zoo Vet Group and the Marine Mammal TAG. His presentation on eye problems in captive pinnipeds was complemented by presentations ranging through enrichment, training and rehabilitation. The following day delegates were invited to Chessington for a workshop on husbandry behaviours. Due to its popularity, six delegates are returning out of season for a hands-on two-day event. The symposium was made possible thanks to generous support from some of our international colleagues, including Marineland Mallorca and Sea World Adventure Parks. For details of the proceedings contact Luke Gates at the address or e-mail given above.

Luke Gates

Dresden Zoo, Germany

After the publication of the article `The rediscovery and conservation of Seychelles giant tortoises' by Justin Gerlach (I.Z.N. 45:1 (1998), pp. 4–10), Dresden Zoo was contacted by him, as was, of course, every other zoo keeping Aldabra tortoises (Dipsochelys dussumieri). Dresden has kept two so-called Aldabra tortoises since 1971 and 1974 respectively. Both animals were bought from a well-known animal dealer. They were described simply as `wild caught' and `adult'; no further information was given, and obviously none was available at that time. Both animals weighed about 115 kg, and the length of their shells was approximately 100 cm.

When the animals arrived it was obvious that the shells were completely different-looking. One showed the typical shell form of Aldabra tortoises (length 110 cm, width 113 cm); the other had a narrower shell (length 103 cm, width 99 cm), the plates above the hind legs were longer and drawn upwards, and the upper front part of the shell was higher than that of the Aldabra tortoise. Everybody assumed that this animal must have experienced a severe lack of calcium and vitamin D in its early days, which could explain the so-called `deformation' of the shell.

The data and measurements of both animals were sent to Dr Gerlach, who decided that the `deformed' tortoise could belong to one of the `extinct' Seychelles species, Dipsochelys arnoldi. A second set of measurements and photos was forwarded, and we got a positive result – Dresden does indeed have a D. arnoldi, No. 18 according to Dr Gerlach, and the first to be recorded outside the Seychelles. Unfortunately our tortoise is a male. Altogether there are now 15.3 D. arnoldi registered. Hopefully there might be another animal in a collection elsewhere. We are ready to send our animal to the breeding station in the Seychelles if necessary.

Dr Hubert Lücker

[Justin Gerlach reports: `Our project to identify the tortoises in captivity outside of Seychelles has been very successful. At the time of writing (28 September 1998) we have examined photographs of 144 tortoises from only a third of the zoos keeping `Aldabran' tortoises. So far a handful of Seychelles survivors have been located, 14 probable hololissa and two probable arnoldi; there are another 25 which merit further investigation. Very few Seychelles females have been found (only two possible hololissa), and none are in viable breeding groups at present. Hopefully they will be able to make a contribution to the conservation of their species in the future.' (Pers. comm., updating information in Seychelles Giant Tortoise News No. 4.)]

Endangered Species Breeding Unit, Martin Mere, Lancashire, U.K.

Further headway was made with the breeding programme for ladybird spiders (Eresus cinnaberinus) when 12 females were imported from Denmark, several with cocoons. These have now burrowed and we await results. Meanwhile juveniles from the first breeding attempt in 1996 are now half grown.

Mud snails (Lymnaea glabra) from the site of Manchester Airport's new runway were received via Chester Zoo. This species is now threatened in Britain. The six original specimens have multiplied to over 200 individuals. Breeding successes with Kerry slug and Partula snails continue, as well as with the fairy shrimp (Chirocephalus diaphanus) and tadpole shrimp (Triops cancriformis), both highly endangered in Britain.

New arrivals include five Iranian salamanders (Batrachuperus persicus), probably the only specimens in captivity, the Iraqi newt (Neurergus microspilotus), the Algerian salamander (Salamandra algira), and two races of fire salamander (S. salamandra) with restricted ranges, morenica and longirostris.

Amongst the reptiles, new arrivals include 1.1 Horsfield's tortoise (Agrionemys horsfieldii) and a quartet of Fly River snake-necked turtles (Chelodina siebenrockii). Breeding was recorded in Hermann's tortoise, Schmidtler's smooth newt, Bosca's newt, Bosnian alpine newt, golden painted frog and Majorcan midwife toad. Specimens of the newly-described midwife toad Alytes (obstetricans) almogavarii also arrived and promptly produced over a hundred tadpoles.

Pat Wisniewski

Indianapolis Zoo, Indiana, U.S.A.

The zoo is extremely pleased to announce that one of its female African elephants has conceived a calf by means of artificial insemination – the first successful conception of this type in the world for African elephants. The news came on 24 July, when ultrasonography on 22-year-old cow Kubwa revealed the presence of a nine-week-old fetus. The conception is the result of a technique developed by Institut für Zoo- und Wildtierforschung (IZW) of Berlin (in English, the Institute for Zoo Biology and Wildlife Research). Indianapolis Zoo, Dickerson Park Zoo in Springfield, Missouri, Kansas City Zoo, the U.S. National Zoo and others have been collaborating with IZW on this procedure for the past several years. The primary veterinarians involved in this successful project are Dr Thomas Hildebrandt and Dr Frank Goeritz, both of IZW.

Dr Robert Hermes, a post-doctorate of IZW, has been in residence at Indianapolis Zoo for the past six months, following reproductive tract changes through ultrasound in preparation for recent insemination attempts on four of the zoo's five female elephants. We have no indication at this time (28 July 1998) that any of the others has conceived. Many variables are involved in a successful pregnancy, and zoo officials are very cautious (but hopeful) about predicting a live birth.

The semen for the procedure came from Dale, a 20-year-old bull elephant who is owned by JoDon Farms in Franksville, Wisconsin, but has been at Kansas City Zoo since 1994. The semen was assessed and prepared on the day of the attempt by Dr Dennis Schmitt, DVM, associate professor at Southwest Missouri State University and veterinarian at Dickerson Park Zoo. He also announced the first successful conception by artificial insemination of an Asian elephant several weeks ago [see I.Z.N. 45:6, p. 393 – Ed.]. That elephant is approximately 23 weeks pregnant and had had a calf previously by natural means. Kubwa is the first virgin elephant cow to be successfully impregnated, which is enormously important in terms of the ultimate viability of this technique for use in the entire captive population of elephants worldwide, most of whom have never had the opportunity for natural conception.

`Regardless of whether this pregnancy ultimately results in a successful birth,' says Dr Jeffrey P. Bonner, president of Indianapolis Zoo, `the significance of knowing the technique itself is successful means we have made the first steps in maintaining a viable population of elephants in human care. Because all elephants in the world are either threatened (like the African elephant) or endangered (like the Asian elephant), we need a sustainable population in captivity. Elephant reproduction has been, and to a large extent remains, a process not well understood by humans. The staff of Indianapolis Zoo pioneered research in elephant reproduction, working with the cooperation of many wonderful people who are concerned with this issue. We owe a huge debt of gratitude to veterinary doctors Hildebrandt, Goeritz and Hermes of the IZW, as well as to Dennis Schmitt. Other important contributors to the process are Janine Brown of the National Zoo, Naida Loskutoff of Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo, the staff of Kansas City Zoo, and others.'

According to Debbie Olson, Curator of Plains at Indianapolis Zoo and one of the leaders over the last several years in organizing the world-wide effort to perfect and use artificial insemination in elephants, the reason this issue is so pressing is the aging population of elephants in captivity. Female elephants have a limited amount of time when it is possible for them to conceive. The issue would not be so critical if elephants in captivity had been more successful in breeding, but very few elephant calves have been born in this century – not nearly enough to sustain any population, much less a genetically viable one. Without a more successful means of achieving conception and birth, the last female elephant in captivity still capable of breeding would disappear within the next 20 years. The difficulties of the anatomical structure of elephants have made artificial insemination, which is a common procedure in domestic animals, extremely problematic. It was with the addition of the new technique, which involves guiding the semen to the correct location via an endoscope and ultrasound, that the breakthrough was made. It was developed and patented in 1995 by Dr Thomas Hildebrandt and the Arno Schnorrenberg Chirurgiemechanik company, with additional equipment provided by Ruesch AG, both in Germany.

Abridged from an Indianapolis Zoo press release

Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust, Channel Islands

The Congo peafowl is the only pheasant species to occur in Africa. The curious tale of its discovery begins in 1913. American ornithologist Dr James P. Chapin was strolling in the Ituri Forest in the Congo when he met a native with a strange feather in his hat. Chapin could not identify this feather, but he put it aside in a safe place. In 1936 Chapin found a stuffed pair of birds, incorrectly labelled as Indian blue peafowl, in the Congo Museum at Tervueren in Belgium. He recognised the wing feathers of the female as matching the feather he had found 23 years earlier. And so, finally, a new species was identified.

Since then, new information about Congo peafowl has been scarce. The species occurs only in the primary rainforest of the Congo river basin, where it is trapped for food and its range is dwindling. So little is known about the species in the wild that it has been impossible to assign a threat category – some classify it as `vulnerable', others as `insufficiently known'.

Antwerp Zoo, with their close ties to the former Belgian Congo, established a captive population in the 1960s. The species is not easy to manage, being very delicate and laying few eggs in each clutch. The captive population now numbers 68 birds in 11 collections in Europe, and some specimens in the U.S.A. Jersey Zoo plays a major role in sustaining the species in captivity. Our two pairs breed well and we currently have 18 Congo peafowl, most of them off-view – the second largest group after Antwerp Zoo.

The Congo peafowl represents the classic `safety net' scenario. The birds are held in the Jersey collection `just in case' it is discovered that the captive population is needed to save the species. In the meantime, we are learning to breed the birds and studying them to understand their behaviour; for, sadly, most of what we know about Congo peafowl, we have learned from birds in captivity.

Gillian Stewart in On the Edge No. 82 (June 1998)

Marwell Zoological Park, U.K.

Marwell has always kept some rodent species, but generally the larger, more familiar ones such as capybara, mara and porcupines, and the Education Centre's domestic rats. We have recently acquired some of the smaller species, not commonly seen in zoos, but popular with visitors and interesting to keep. Many zoos now realise the importance for conservation of these smaller species, and the need for controlled breeding programmes. In the past, breeding has not been monitored and several species have died out in captivity when a small population has been allowed to inbreed. In the case of many rodents, it is very difficult to determine, without correct records, the history and relevant details of the animals involved. Most rodents also have a relatively short lifespan, which, combined with a small population, means that a species can die out in a short space of time.

Red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) came to Marwell in 1997 and, although we are temporarily without them, they are part of a well-established U.K. breeding programme and may return in due course. The next to arrive were Prévost's squirrels (Callosciurus prevosti); after some exchanges, we have one potential breeding pair and hope to form a second. These `beautiful squirrels' (as they are also known) are very colourful and active during the day, which makes them popular with the public. They breed fairly well in captivity, but as yet only in small numbers. In May 1998, a third species arrived – the Guayaquil squirrel (S. stramineus). This arboreal, tropical species from Ecuador is semi-nocturnal and shy.

Other small rodents we have acquired include Persian jird (Meriones persicus), bushy-tailed jird (Sekeetamys calurus), fat-tailed jird (Pachyuromys duprasi), Indian naked-soled gerbil (Tatera indica), multi-mammate mouse (Mastomys natalensis), Tunisian house mouse (Mus domesticus praetextus), Iranian mouse-like hamster (Calomyscus mystax), Gunther's vole (Microtus guentheri), reed vole (M. fortis), and Mongolian silver mountain vole (Alticola semicanus alleni). We also hope to acquire jerboas and other small colonies of rodents.

Although not a rodent, the kowari (Dasyuroides byrnei) is another very interesting small mammal, which arrived shortly before the squirrels. We have an unrelated trio of these carnivorous marsupials, an aggressive desert species from Australia. Kowaris are endangered and there is an established EEP, but as yet there has been little success in breeding this difficult species. Not enough is really known about their breeding behaviour, and a successful method of husbandry has yet to be achieved.

A pair of Malagasy giant jumping rats (Hypogeomys antimena) joined us from Jersey Zoo and were successfully introduced to our ring-tailed lemur enclosure. Certain indoor modifications were needed, including a tunnel network buried under several inches of bark chippings. Adjoining this are a nest, sleeping area and separate feeding box to prevent the lemurs gaining access to the rats' food, As far as we know, these two species have not been mixed together before, so this is new ground, but they should provide each other with some behavioural stimulation. Giant jumping rats are the largest native rodent species in Madagascar. As an endangered species, they are part of a managed breeding programme administered by Jersey. In captivity they generally breed well, but as yet few collections keep them. From the initial importation of five wild-born animals, Jersey has bred over 130 in seven years. Of the original five founders, only one female remains, along with the other 56 animals (1997) in the captive population, in which the genes of all the founders are represented. Since 1996 Jersey has employed a policy of controlling future breeding of over-represented bloodlines, thereby reducing inbreeding and limiting population growth until breeding space in other collections becomes available. The problem of inbreeding could be alleviated by introducing more unrelated animals via fresh imports, but more space would be needed to exhibit them, and with space at a premium many zoos prefer other, more popular species. Luckily, our pair are free to breed, and have now produced their first offspring.

Abridged from Paul Irven in Marwell Zoo News No. 97 (Autumn/Winter 1998)

Melbourne Zoo, Victoria, Australia

In what is thought to be a first for an Australian zoo, a twist-neck turtle (Platemys platycephala) has hatched at the zoo. The species is native to the lowland tropical rainforests of northern South America, usually occupying ephemeral pools and the edges of shallow streams. Apart from the mata mata (Chelus fimbriatus), this is the only species of exotic side-necked chelonian currently kept in Australia. Females, which have carapace lengths of around 150 mm, lay single large eggs measuring around 52 by 27 mm and weighing 24–25 g.

Our adult group of turtles originated in Bolivia and was received from the National Zoo, Washington, D.C., in 1987. Since then staff have tried to breed the animals, and a single fertile egg has been laid on three separate occasions, resulting in one successful hatching. Unfortunately, the young turtle failed to thrive and died within a week of emergence.

Oviposition was not witnessed prior to the recent hatching, and staff first became aware of their success when the hatchling was found during exhibit cleaning on 9 June. From its general condition, it is thought to have hatched up to seven days earlier. When found, the turtle measured 54 mm in shell length and weighed 19 g. It was removed to an off-limit aquarium landscaped with small rocks and shallow water, and although it moves around the tank, it can usually be found at the land-water interface. The young turtle is now feeding well on live maggots, blood-worms and live-frozen brine shrimp.

Chris Banks in ARAZPA Newsletter No. 39 (August 1998)

North Carolina Zoo, Asheboro, North Carolina, U.S.A.

The zoo has been awarded a $15,000 grant from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to establish a managed breeding population of the Cape Fear shiner (Notropis mekistocholas). The grant will also fund research on the life history and behavior of this endangered freshwater fish. This shiner is endemic to the Cape Fear river basin in central North Carolina, and is threatened by its restricted range and a variety of potential threats to its environment. Only four small populations are presently known, and it is believed that, historically, the species has had a restricted distribution. Funds from this grant will purchase equipment to establish the managed population at the zoo's Streamside exhibit for study and display. The primary goal of the project will be to establish base-line life history studies and provide fish for a variety of other studies that will be conducted elsewhere.

J.D. Groves in AZA Communiqué (September 1998)

Riverbanks Zoological Park, Columbia, South Carolina, U.S.A.

At the recent 74th annual conference of the American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA), Riverbanks received the Edward H. Bean Award for its long-term propagation program of Ramphastidae (toucans). The bird department has maintained toucans in its collection since 1974. In 1977, Riverbanks received an award for the first captive breeding of the toco toucan. Since then, the zoo has bred a total of 33 toco toucans. During the same period, 46 young of five other species, including keel-billed and chestnut-mandibled toucans, emerald and saffron toucanets, and green aracaris, have been raised. Riverbanks currently maintains two pairs of toco toucans, two pairs of keel-billed toucans, one pair of chestnut-mandibled toucans and one pair of green aracaris. Off-exhibit breeding aviaries for the three large toucan species are currently under construction and should be finished in early 1999. Over the years, Riverbanks has developed techniques and husbandry guidelines that have been adopted by zoos and private aviculturists throughout the country. These can be seen on the AZA Avian Interest Group web site at www.riverbanks.org/aig/toucan.htm.

The following births and hatchings took place during the period July to September 1998: 2 black-footed cat, 1.0 reticulated giraffe, 1 white-crested touraco, 3 keel-billed toucan, 2 green aracari, 1 East African crowned crane, 1 toco toucan (DNS), 4 giant leaf-tailed gecko, 18 Henkel's leaf-tailed gecko (1 DNS), 1 New Caledonia crested gecko, 3 crocodile skink, 4.8 eastern diamondback rattlesnake, 19 dwarf siren (Pseudobranchus striatus; 7 DNS).

The following animals were acquired: 1.0 palm cockatoo, 1.0 crested seriema, 5 Pine Barrens tree frog (Hyla andersoni), 4 marine toad, 2 horned frog, 7 spotted salamander, 2 tiger salamander, 15 Heniochus butterfly fish, 3 pyramid butterfly fish, 10 bicolor goatfish, 1 yellow goatfish, 1 oriental sweetlips, 1 bicolor parrot fish, 20 squirrel fish, 10 powder blue tang, 6 purple tang, 20 cleaner wrasse, 1.5 Mexican rainbow wrasse.

Alan H. Shoemaker,

Collection Manager

Rome Zoo, Italy

The zoo's oldest resident, a female Andean condor (Vultur gryphus), is reported to have died of old age on 29 September 1998. Captured in the Chilean Andes, she was sent to Rome by Santiago Zoo, and was received on 6 May 1931, aged at least three years. She was therefore at least 70 at the time of her death. This female is survived by her mate, Italo. He was named after the Air Marshal Italo Balbo, commander of the air cruise of some 20 military seaplanes from Italy to South America in 1932, to celebrate the tenth anniversary of the Fascist March on Rome (1922). This enterprise, the first of its kind (together with another one to North America), was very popular at the time and attracted enormous interest on both sides of the Atlantic. The male condor was given to Benito Mussolini by the South American governments to recognise and symbolise the event, and the Fascist (and, at that time, Italy's) leader presented him to Rome Zoo in 1932. Italo must therefore be at least 69 years old at present, and he is now the zoo's `senior member'. The pair never bred: the female laid an egg in 1987, but it turned out to be infertile.

Pier Lorenzo Florio

St Louis Zoo, Missouri, U.S.A.

Two young Coquerel's sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi coquereli) brothers have recently arrived to live in the zoo's primate house. Once seen, sifakas are not to be forgotten. Their fur is creamy white with dramatic chestnut brown patches on the chest, arms and legs. Most notable are their long, frog-like legs. Clinging to the trunk of a tree, they can kick off and leap more than 30 feet (9 m) to another tree. On the ground, with arms raised, they move in an odd bipedal hop.

The sifaka is among the most endangered of the 33 lemur species found in Madagascar. They are also very rare in captivity – St Louis is only the second North American zoo to exhibit them, and one of only four worldwide. Formulating a proper diet for these leaf-eating specialists has been the greatest challenge in their captive management. Our two males, Otho and Gordian, were born at Duke University Primate Center, North Carolina, which has worked with a small sifaka colony for 30 years. Researchers there have recently developed management techniques to increase longevity and reproductive success, so that now some sifaka offspring can be transferred to qualified zoos. St Louis was selected because it has extensive experience with numerous lemur species. When more females are born into the captive population, these two males will be paired and allowed to reproduce.

Abridged from a St Louis Zoo press release

Taronga Zoo, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

The first VIP guest for the zoo's newly-renovated quarantine centre was a Malayan tapir who arrived from Philadelphia Zoo, U.S.A., as a mate for our resident male. It is hoped that the pair will breed, thus initiating the breeding program for the species in Australia.

When the female first arrived she was understandably nervous in her new surroundings. In the wild a tapir's natural behaviour when startled or threatened is to put its head down and charge off through the jungle. Having a large animal rush about in a limited area is always problematic, so the keepers set about testing ways to calm her. Working on experience gained with the male that most tapirs respond well when scratched, keepers augmented the female's daily feeds with a scratching session using a plastic rake. She appeared to enjoy this, but was still prone to running off with no warning, especially when all the food was consumed. Something more was needed. After discussion with other keepers, it was decided to try brushing her with a horse brush, similar to the brush used on the male. The first session with the brush brought instant results. She immediately abandoned her food, collapsed onto the floor and rolled on her side as the scratching continued.

The female is a lot calmer now and the brushing has also proved useful for another aspect of her captive care. Tapirs are prone to foot problems due to their weight and their soft footpads. Checking and treating her feet on a daily basis might have been an impossible task, were it not for her response to being scratched. The scratching sessions, using colour-coded brushes, will continue when the female is moved in with the male.

Allan Schmidt in ARAZPA Newsletter No. 39 (August 1998)

Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde, Germany

Much to our regret, the second birth of an Asian elephant at the Tierpark was unsuccessful, like the first (see I.Z.N. 45:2, p. 121). On 31 July 1998 the 25-year-old elephant, Luise, gave birth to a dead female calf by episiotomy. The baby was carried to term and weighed 110 kg. In all probability the protracted parturition process was responsible for the stillbirth. It was the first birth to Luise, who came to the zoo as a young animal via Messrs. Ruhe. The sire – as in the case of the first birth in January – was the Asian bull Ankhor (15 years old) from Burma.

Dr Bernhard Blaszkiewitz

Zambezi Nature Sanctuary, Zimbabwe

[A visitor's report by Chris Moiser]

This sanctuary is situated in an area of bush, on a tributary close to the Zambezi river, about five kilometres north-west of Victoria Falls. It started as a crocodile farm in 1971, admitting the public to show them live crocodiles, and the working of crocodile skins to make various goods. Over the years the farm was presented with a number of animals, usually as a result of them being injured by traffic in the local area.

The crocodile farm is still the central commercial operation on the site, and although much of it is not on show, the public are able to see a series of rearing enclosures with crocodiles of various sizes. Crocodile-skin goods may be bought either from the workshop, or from the gift shop which also stocks a range of other, more conventional, gifts.

As one of the earliest crocodile farms, in what was then Rhodesia, this farm became a leader in the field of crocodile husbandry. They are licensed to take a number of crocodile eggs from the wild under condition that they return a percentage of the hatchlings. In previous years this has been a minimum of 2%, but they normally returned more. This year none have been returned, as some work done in the area revealed that the crocodile population was reaching the maximum that the habitat could carry. The Zambezi river locally is used for river cruises, canoe safaris and white-water rafting, and although the wild crocodiles have not yet come into conflict with the tourist industry there is a fear that they soon may.

To reduce the need to harvest wild-laid eggs, efforts are being made to establish captive-breeding colonies of crocodiles. At least three of these colonies are on show, and very impressive they are too, with males of up to five metres long. The public are able to `walk over' these breeding groups on raised concrete walkways which give exceptional views and photo-opportunities. In developing these enclosures, the sanctuary has made use of a local stream that feeds into the Zambezi, so the water is moving, and not in the form of the fetid pools that are sometimes seen in crocodile farms.

In addition to crocodiles, animals on display include a leopard who arrived through the sanctuary's connection with the Chipangali Wildlife Trust, some Nile monitors, a Cape vulture, lovebirds, a duiker and three ostriches. There is a possibility that some cheetahs will be arriving in late 1998. One of the best displays is also one of the least imposing, and that is an exhibit of local fish from the Zambezi. These are in six clean, well-maintained and properly labelled aquaria. These are in the museum, which also has displays on crocodile evolution and the local plant life. In addition it has a superb model of the Zambezi bridge with a steam locomotive crossing, and a cinema. The latter is a nice, airy 50-seater and has a series of wildlife films showing through the day; a programme of films, with the times of presentation, is displayed at the cinema entrance.

The most impressive exhibit, without doubt, is the lion display. In 1997 the park was given three orphan lion cubs which were hand-reared by Ewan Tilley, one of the managers. Realising the potential of having these animals, the owners have now built a most remarkable enclosure which covers almost an acre (0.4 ha). Most of the enclosure is surrounded with chain-link wire, but without a stand-off barrier. Instead there are two electric strands supported on the inside of the fence which keep the lions away from the wire. Alongside the tea gardens the fence is replaced by a moat, again with electric strands, just out of reach on the visitors' side. This enables the visitors to get a good uninterrupted view of the lions while taking refreshments. Interestingly, the sanctuary gets occasional evening bookings for meals and, as an experiment, floodlights were placed at the front of the lion enclosure, by the moat. When the lights are turned on at night the lions come and sit under them and watch the visitors! It is also possible to walk over the lion enclosure using an extension of the walkway above the crocodiles. This again gives an excellent uninterrupted view of the lions from an angle that most visitors would never see.

The tea garden is delightfully situated with stone tables on a lawn in the shade of a series of well-established trees. Waiter service is prompt and cheerful, and there is a good, very reasonably priced, menu which supplies everything from coffee and biscuits (home-made) to a substantial meal. One pleasant feature of this establishment is that once you have paid for admission, tea and coffee are free. A new restaurant is under construction to improve the range of meals available, and particularly to target the evening meal trade and the large number of backpackers who pass through the area. A deliberate decision has been made not to apply for a liquor licence because of previous experiences with drunks attempting to feed crocodiles inappropriate food.

Being situated within the Zambezi National Park, there is much in the way of local wildlife in and around the sanctuary in addition to the exhibits. On a recent visit a malachite kingfisher and a golden-tailed woodpecker were seen in the sanctuary, and a bachelor group of elephants were present outside by the perimeter fence. The elephants were not looked upon favourably, as they uprooted several trees and damaged a water main. They also delay local traffic and pose a potential danger to pedestrians.

The admission charge is currently Z$50.00 (under £2.00 sterling, or US$3.00); as this includes free tea and coffee, and a wildlife film if you wish to see one, it represents very good value for money. The major investment made in the new lion enclosure shows a clear commitment to develop the sanctuary for the benefit of animals and visitors alike.

When hand-rearing the three lion cubs, Ewan tried to make contact with other people who had experience in rearing lion cubs, and was not particularly successful in doing so. As it is possible that they may have more lion cubs in the future, he is still keen to correspond with other people with such experience. Details of African wildlife veterinary experiences and exotic animal veterinary textbooks would also be gratefully received, as the local veterinary surgeon has little wildlife experience, and the nearest wildlife vet is in Bulawayo, 250 miles away. Ewan can be contacted by post at the Zambezi Wildlife Sanctuary, P.O. Box 18, Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe.

News in Brief

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Manatee Rescue and Rehabilitation Program is to send some of its captive manatees to new homes outside Florida, for the first time in the programme's history. Currently more than 50 manatees are being cared for at six Florida facilities; this number includes some of the 20–30 animals rescued each year. The move will free space for critical care of orphaned and sick manatees, and will provide an excellent educational opportunity for the programme.

Endangered Species Bulletin 23:1, quoted in Oryx 32:3 (July 1998)

* * * * *

Two milky storks (Mycteria cinerea) hatched in June at the Freeport McMoran Audubon Species Survival Center at Audubon Zoo, New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A. This is the first successful breeding of milky storks at the zoo, believed to be only the second U.S. institution to breed this endangered species. The parents are presently housed with six other milky storks and six Abdim's storks in one large flight pen: using this colonizing technique is generally more successful for managed breeding. The chicks are being parent-raised.

J. Vaccaro in AZA Communiqué (October 1998)



RECENT ARTICLES

Adloff, A.: Die Abzeichen und Medaillen des Tierparks. (Badges and medals of Tierpark Berlin.) Milu Vol. 9, No. 4 (1998), pp. 457–471. [German, no English summary.]

Audet, A.M.: Behavior of the tayra, Eira barbara (Carnivora: Mustelidae) in captivity. Der Zoologische Garten Vol. 68, No. 5 (1998), pp. 300–320. [The author constructed an ethogram on the basis of behavior documented in the literature and her own observations of 1.1 adult tayras at the National Zoo, Washington, D.C. Some behavior patterns may not appear in captive animals, or may appear in a modified or misleading form. A behavior study of wild tayras would thus be helpful. A comparative study of mustelids in terms of morphological, physiological, behavioral, and ecological adaptations would be useful to understand the evolutionary place of tayras in the mustelid family.]

Blaszkiewitz, B.: Ein Grauwal in San Diego. (A grey whale in San Diego.) Milu Vol. 9, No. 4 (1998), pp. 341–345. [Sea World of California; German, no English summary.]

Blaszkiewitz, B.: Panzernashorn (Rhinoceros unicornis) und Breitmaulnashorn (Ceratotherium simum) – Bilder aus dem Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde. Erster Nachtrag. (Indian and white rhinos – pictures from Tierpark Berlin. First supplement.) Milu Vol. 9, No. 4 (1998), pp. 363–368. [German, no English summary.]

Bloomsmith, M.A., Stone, A.M., and Laule, G.E.: Positive reinforcement training to enhance the voluntary movement of group-housed chimpanzees within their enclosures. Zoo Biology Vol. 17, No. 4 (1998), pp. 333–341. [Positive reinforcement training techniques were successful in significantly increasing chimpanzees' level of compliance with the request to move and be locked into the indoor portions of their enclosures. There was a significant age-by-sex interaction in performance, with adult males complying less than other age/sex classes, but even these males reached reliable performance. Compliance with this procedure was temporarily and only slightly reduced when the individuals who originally trained the chimpanzees transferred responsibility to other people.]

Collins, M.S., Smith, T.B., Seibels, R.E., and Putra, I.M.W.A.: Approaches to the reintroduction of the Bali mynah. Zoo Biology Vol. 17, No. 4 (1998), pp. 267–284. [The wild population of Leucopsar rothschildi consists of approximately 17 birds confined to West Bali National Park, whereas by 1994 the zoo population numbered more than 500, and a further 200+ are held privately in Indonesia. The authors conducted an experimental release of one captive-bred and five confiscated, wild-bred birds on a small offshore island within the park boundary. The released birds readily developed flight and foraging skills. Of the six, one was stolen, three were probably killed by a raptor, and two were returned successfully to the wild. Though many challenges remain for the conservation of this species, including poaching in the park, disease in the captive population, predation by raptors on newly-released birds, and destruction of essential habitat, results suggest that the Bali mynah is a suitable species for an expanded propagation and release programme, provided that poaching is curtailed and disease in birds intended for release can be eliminated.]

Czupalla, H.-P., and Blaszkiewitz, B.: Eine Bronzeplastik für `Knautschke' nebst einigen Anmerkungen zu Flusspferddarstellungen in Zoologischen Gärten. (A bronze sculpture of Knautschke, together with some remarks on portrayals of hippos in zoos.) Milu Vol. 9, No. 4 (1998), pp. 369–375. [German, no English summary. (The male hippopotamus Knautschke, who died in 1988, was one of the few animals to survive World War II in Berlin Zoo, and perhaps the most popular hippo in history! – Ed.)]

Czupalla, O., Strauss, G., and Wisser, J.: Tierärztliche Aspekte zur Geburt des ersten Elefanten im Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde. (Veterinary aspects of the first elephant birth at Tierpark Berlin.) Milu Vol. 9, No. 4 (1998), pp. 346–353. [German, no English summary; the calf was stillborn.]

Dathe, F., and Czupalla, O.: Bemerkenswertes Alter eines Afrikanischen Dreiklauers, Trionyx triunguis (Forskål, 1775). (Notable longevity of a Nile soft-shell turtle.) Milu Vol. 9, No. 4 (1998), pp. 402–404. [German, no English summary; the animal died after being at Tierpark Berlin for nearly 42 years.]

Gippoliti, S., and Amori, G.: Rodent conservation, zoos, and the importance of the `common species'. Zoo Biology Vol. 17, No. 4 (1998), pp. 263–265. [Stresses the potential value – for both conservation and education – of greater representation of rodents in zoos.]

Grummt, W.: Begegnungen mit Sumatranashörnern, Dicerorhinus sumatrensis (Fischer, 1814). (Meetings with Sumatran rhinos.) Milu Vol. 9, No. 4 (1998), pp. 354–362. [German, no English summary.]

Hatt, J.-M., Lechner-Doll, M., and Mayes, B.: The use of dosed and herbage n-alkanes as markers for the determination of digestive strategies of captive giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis). Zoo Biology Vol. 17, No. 4 (1998), pp. 295–309. [In this study, captive giraffes showed low digestibility coefficients, and a short particle retention time compared to grazing ruminants. This supports the current opinion that the giraffe, like many browsing species, is not able to digest as efficiently as roughage feeders fed the same diet.]

Hiepe, T.: Prof. Dr. Klaus Odening – ein Leben für die Parasitologie. (Prof. K. Odening – a life for parasitology.) Milu Vol. 9, No. 4 (1998), pp. 472–476. [German, no English summary; Prof. Odening recently retired from the Institute for Zoo and Wild Animal Research (IZW).]

Honegger, R.E.: Beitrag zu Haltung und Zucht der Skorpionskrustenechse, Heloderma horridum, im Zoo Zürich. (Notes on management and breeding of beaded lizards at Zürich Zoo.) Der Zoologische Garten Vol. 68, No. 5 (1998), pp. 287–299. [German, with English summary.]

Kaiser, M., and Richter, R.: Handaufzucht eines Riesenreihers (Ardea goliath) im Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde. (Hand-rearing a goliath heron at Tierpark Berlin.) Milu Vol. 9, No. 4 (1998), pp. 384–393. [German, no English summary.]

Kenny, D.E., Irlbeck, N.A., Chen, T.C., Lu, Z., and Holick, M.F.: Determination of vitamins D, A, and E in sera and vitamin D in milk from captive and free-ranging polar bears (Ursus maritimus), and 7-dehydrocholesterol levels in skin from captive polar bears. Zoo Biology Vol. 17, No. 4 (1998), pp. 285–293. [Vitamin A and E serum levels were significantly higher in free-ranging versus captive bears; seal meat may be the main source of these fat-soluble vitamins for wild polar bears. Evaluation of seal blubber for vitamin D content may help to determine whether it is the bears' primary source of this vitamin too; further research is needed to assess the extent to which polar bear milk provides cubs with vitamin D3. Examination of skin samples suggests that this species – in common with e.g. domestic dogs and cats – relies on ingestion rather than cutaneous production as a primary source of vitamin D.]

Kormann, J.: Erste Schritte zu einem Rifflagunen-Aquarium in der Cafeteria des Tierparks Berlin-Friedrichsfelde. (First steps towards a reef-lagoon aquarium in the Tierpark Berlin cafeteria.) Milu Vol. 9, No. 4 (1998), pp. 405–414. [German, no English summary.]

Lindburg, D.G.: Equal time for the plants among us. Zoo Biology Vol. 17, No. 3 (1998), pp. 163–165. [A plea to give a higher profile to the botanical collections within zoos.]

Matthies, E.: Künstler und ihre Werke im Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde. III. (Artists and their work in Tierpark Berlin.) Milu Vol. 9, No. 4 (1998), pp. 453–456. [German, no English summary.]

Nadler, T.: Wiederentdeckung des Schwarzen Languren (Trachypithecus francoisi ebenus). (Rediscovery of the black langur.) Der Zoologische Garten Vol. 68, No. 5 (1998), pp. 265–272. [German, with English summary. Tilo Nadler manages the Endangered Primate Rescue Center, Cuc Phuong, Vietnam – see I.Z.N. 45:4, pp. 202–207.]

Pohle, C.: Erste Erfahrungen mit Blauschafen (Pseudois nayaur). (First experiences with blue sheep.) Milu Vol. 9, No. 4 (1998), pp. 376–383. [German, no English summary.]

Rapaport, L.G.: Optimal foraging theory predicts effects of environmental enrichment in a group of adult golden lion tamarins. Zoo Biology Vol. 17, No. 3 (1998), pp. 231–244. [The objective of this study was to measure the effects of variation in resource distribution and availability on food competition in a group of Leontopithecus rosalia. Consistent with predictions, food competition increased as the energy invested to obtain an item increased, but contrary to predictions, food competition did not vary according to food abundance. Over the course of the experiment, all individuals obtained an equivalent number of items (grapes) from the foraging device, even though some obtained most of their food rewards directly from the device, while others received them primarily through transfer from other group members. As the tamarins appeared highly motivated to use the test apparatus and did not habituate to it, the device could be a suitable regular form of environmental enrichment for this species. However, because devices that increase foraging time also tend to increase rates of aggression, a prudent approach would be to furnish more than one extractive foraging device per group.]

Rehbein, S., Bienioschek, S., Sachse, M., and Neubert, E.: Hämatologische und klinisch-chemische Untersuchungen bei natürlich und bei mutterlos aufgewachsenen Damhirschen (Dama dama L.). 1 Mitt.: Hämatologische Untersuchungen. (Haematology and plasma biochemistry of naturally and artificially reared fallow deer. 1: Haematology.) Der Zoologische Garten Vol. 68, No. 5 (1998), pp. 273–286. [German, with English summary.]

Rudloff, K.: Im Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde 1997 erstmalig gehaltene Tierformen. (Animals kept for the first time in Tierpark Berlin.) Milu Vol. 9, No. 4 (1998), pp. 415–444. [German, no English summary; mainly photos of the species concerned.]

Schaffer, N.E., Walasek, J.G., Hall, D.C., Bryant, W.M., and Reed, M.C.: Cage restraints for rhinoceroses. Zoo Biology Vol. 17, No. 4 (1998), pp. 343–359. [Captive breeding programs for the rhinoceros can be enhanced by studying their reproductive physiology. To do so requires repetitive manipulations under physically controlled circumstances. To facilitate these procedures, zoos throughout the world have constructed restraint devices, or chutes. In this study, eight chute designs at seven institutions were compared for efficiency in controlling rhinoceroses during ultrasonography, semen collection, and blood sampling. Permanent, indoor, side-adjustable, pass-through chutes were determined to be the most efficient and convenient type, because they saved time and reduced stress on the animals.]

Scheibe, K.M., Eichhorn, K., Kalz, B., Streich, W.J., and Scheibe, A.: Water consumption and watering behavior of Przewalski horses (Equus ferus przewalskii) in a semireserve. Zoo Biology Vol. 17, No. 3 (1998), pp. 181–192. [Water consumption by 12 females was automatically measured for 17 months. Average daily consumption on a yearly basis was between 2.4 and 8.3 litres, but significant individual differences were recorded, which indicate the need for further study of the species' physiological requirements. Selecting individuals with low water demand for reintroductions may be the best way to avoid unnecessary suffering, loss and failure.]

Schifter, H.: Zoologische Gärten, Aquarien und ähnliche Institutionen auf Hawaii. (Zoos, aquariums and similar institutions of Hawaii.) Milu Vol. 9, No. 4 (1998), pp. 445–452. [German, no English summary.]

Seidel, B.: Zootierärztliche Erfahrungen mit Rheinartfasanen, Rheinardia ocellata ocellata (Elliot). (Veterinary experiences with crested argus pheasant.) Milu Vol. 9, No. 4 (1998), pp. 394–401. [German, no English summary.]

Stoinski, T.S., Lukas, K.E., and Maple, T.L.: A survey of research in North American zoos and aquariums. Zoo Biology Vol. 17, No. 3 (1998), pp. 167–180. [The percentage of zoos and aquariums that report conducting research has increased in the last decade. The most common types of zoo and aquarium research are behavioral and reproductive studies, and the most commonly studied taxa are mammals, birds, and reptiles, as well as humans (visitor behavior). A majority of zoos and aquariums reported studying the wild counterparts of their captive collections, indicating a role for these institutions in field research.]

Taylor, V.J., and Poole, T.B.: Captive breeding and infant mortality in Asian elephants: a comparison between twenty Western zoos and three Eastern elephant centers. Zoo Biology Vol. 17, No. 4 (1998), pp. 311–332. [Data from this and other studies suggest that some short- and long-term changes could be made to existing practices to improve conditions for captive Asian elephants and to increase their breeding success. These include: giving increased opportunities for mating, either by more accurately determining oestrus or by increasing the amount of time males and females have access to each other; maintaining elephants in stable social groups, with young females growing up surrounded by mature females and other young animals, where they can learn the allomothering skills necessary for infant care; housing young males in male social groups after they leave their family group as juveniles; making efforts to restrict the weight of zoo elephants through providing more bulky, less nutritious food and browse, making them work to obtain and prepare food before consumption, and allowing opportunities for them to graze on growing vegetation; providing additional exercise through training, light work activities, and walks outside their enclosures with their trainers; and finding means of controlling musth in male zoo elephants – e.g. by chemical treatments or social regulation via a dominance hierarchy in male groups – to reduce the amount of time they have to spend in confinement. If Asian elephant breeding programmes are to be successful in the long term in conserving the species, breeding groups also need to be established in native countries in extensive facilities where the elephants are managed in large mixed-sex groups with access to areas of natural habitat for feeding and exercise, and contact with wild elephants. Zoological collections in non-range countries will probably have a limited role in such programmes, and it is important that they place more emphasis on the animal welfare and educational aspects of keeping the animals before putting breeding as a priority.]

van Heezik, Y., and Seddon, P.J.: Ontogeny of behavior of hand-reared and hen-reared captive houbara bustards. Zoo Biology Vol. 17, No. 3 (1998), pp. 245–255. [The aim of this study at the National Wildlife Research Center, Taif, Saudi Arabia, was to determine ways to improve the behavioral and physiological health of Chlamydotis undulata individuals destined for release into the wild. Chicks from both groups were able to walk and run on the first day after hatching, although they were least active during the first five days. Thereafter, time spent prone with the head down, in a half-crouch position, or being brooded during the day (in the case of hen-reared chicks), decreased quickly, and time spent walking and standing increased. Pecking and some preening and comfort behaviors were expressed from the first day in both groups, but increased after about 15 days. Simple threat displays were first expressed at six days in both groups, but developed into more complete displays with age. The only differences found between the two rearing techniques were that hen-reared chicks spent more time walking and less time in a half-crouch position than hand-reared chicks, because the hen stimulates the chicks to move. Lack of exercise during growth may result in poor development of locomotive structures, which might compromise the survival of chicks destined to be released to the wild. However, the authors found no difference in survival after release between hand- and hen-reared juveniles, suggesting that hen-rearing by captive-bred birds in a confined and artificial environment did not confer appreciable advantages.]

Velte, F.: Die ehemalige Haltung von Moschustieren (Moschus moschiferus) im Opel-Zoo Kronberg. (Former management of musk deer at Opel-Zoo, Kronberg, Germany.) Der Zoologische Garten Vol. 68, No. 5 (1998), pp. 321–324. [German, with very brief English summary. Eight (4.4) musk deer were kept at the zoo between 1960 and 1964, and their management has been reconstructed from monthly reports.]

Wielebnowski, N., and Brown, J.L.: Behavioral correlates of physiological estrus in cheetahs. Zoo Biology Vol. 17, No. 3 (1998), pp. 193–209. [Estrus in Acinonyx jubatus is sometimes reported as `silent', therefore contributing to breeding problems by making appropriate timing of pair introductions difficult. To investigate whether any observable behavioral changes may be associated with estrus, the authors carried out quantitative behavioral observations and concomitant non-invasive monitoring of estradiol metabolites excreted in feces of 14 captive female cheetahs for periods of 5–22 consecutive weeks. They found that changes in fecal estradiol concentrations correlated significantly with variation in the occurrence of several types of behaviors, including rolling, rubbing, sniffing, vocalizing, and urine spraying. However, the number and types of correlated behaviors varied across females, revealing no single behavior indicative of estrus, but rather a constellation of behaviors that increased in frequency when estradiol concentrations were elevated. There was no significant difference in the overall average estradiol concentrations or peak values of the females that had previously mated and conceived, compared to those of the females that had failed to breed. Successful breeders appeared to show significantly higher rates of rubbing and rolling than non-breeders. However, rates of rubbing, rolling, and urine spraying were also found to increase with age, and older individuals were more likely to have bred. The results of this study indicate that estrus in the cheetah cannot be regarded as `silent', since the frequencies of some behaviors appear to vary in step with fluctuating estradiol levels. However, behavioral monitoring of estrus may nevertheless be difficult and time-consuming due to individual variation and subtle changes in behavioral frequencies rather than changes in the types of behaviors displayed.]

Wood, W.: Interactions among environmental enrichment, viewing crowds, and zoo chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Zoo Biology Vol. 17, No. 3 (1998), pp. 211–230. [The primary purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not a group of zoo chimpanzees responded to environmental enrichment differently given higher weekend crowds in contrast to lower weekday crowds. Findings showed that foraging, feeding, and object-using were more likely with new enrichment; conversely, grooming, playing, watch-idle, and aberrant behaviors were more likely with one-day-old enrichment. Across both new and one-day-old enrichment, however, high crowds corresponded with diminished frequencies of foraging, object-using, grooming, and play. The study's second purpose was to examine how zoo visitors responded to chimpanzees under varying conditions of environmental enrichment. Analysis of zoo visitors' verbatim responses suggested that the public's behavior was influenced by a desire to interact with the chimpanzees, the state of the chimpanzees' habitat, the relative complexity of the chimpanzees' activities, and human sociocultural norms. Thus a variety of contextual factors were found to influence the behavior of chimpanzees and humans alike. Future research is encouraged that investigates the ways in which multiple elements within the full captive socio-ecology of chimpanzees interact to influence the effectiveness of environmental enrichment as well as zoo visitors' responses to, and lasting impressions of, zoo chimpanzees.]

Publishers of the periodicals listed:

Milu, Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde, Am Tierpark 125, D-1136 Berlin, Germany.

Zoo Biology, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 605 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10158, U.S.A.

Der Zoologische Garten, Gustav Fischer Verlag Jena GmbH, Villengang 2, D-07745 Jena, Germany.