International Zoo News Vol. 50/8 (No. 329)    December 2003

 

                                   CONTENTS

 

IN MEMORIAM – Gerard van Dam

 

FEATURE ARTICLES

 

Husbandry of Dholes at                    Farshid Mehrdadfar, Justin Chuven,

San Diego Wild Animal Park                Kelly Casavant, and Karen Barnes

 

Vocalizations of Juvenile Cheetahs        Angela S. Stoeger-Horwath

during Feeding at Schönbrunn Zoo          and Harald M. Schwammer

 

Heidelberg – a Zoo Reborn                 John Tuson

 

Kerbert and the Japanese Giant                  A.C. van Bruggen

Salamander: Early Scientific Achievements

in the Amsterdam Aquarium

 

A Note on the Births of Bearded Saki            Daniela Fichtner Gomes and

and Woolly Monkey in Brazilian Zoos       Júlio César Bicca-Marques

 

Book Reviews

 

Conservation

 

International Zoo News

 

Index to Contributors, Vol. 50

 

Index to Books Reviewed, Vol. 50

 

Subject Index, Vol. 50

 

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IN MEMORIAM

 

Gerard van Dam, 1927–2003

 

[Gerard van Dam took over the fledgling International Zoo News from its founder, Bent Jørgensen, in 1954, and thereafter ran it with great success until 1973. Below, Bent Jørgensen shares some early memories of Gerard van Dam.]

 

Some months after the publication of the first issue of International Zoo News in 1951, I received a letter from Wageningen in the Netherlands that surprised me. IZN was intended as a magazine for zoos, and it had never occurred to me that there could be other people than myself who – without working in a zoo – had a deep fascination with zoo life. Nobody had told me about zoo enthusiasts!

 

The letter was from Gerard van Dam, a young man who (as far as I remember) worked with public relations but, like me, had zoos as his only hobby. He was well known in Dutch zoological gardens and had learned about IZN during a visit to Rotterdam Zoo. He told me that he had for some time thought of creating something similar to IZN, and now he wanted to know whether he could be of any assistance to me. He was immediately made correspondent to IZN, and from issue No. 11 in December 1951 many news items and articles were signed `G.Th.v.D.'

 

In the spring of 1952 I was invited to stay with the van Dam family for a week. Gerard had talked several Dutch zoos into sponsoring a large part of my expenses, and every morning we left to visit one or two zoos. Everywhere we were cordially welcomed by the zoo directors, and it was apparent that Gerard van Dam was highly regarded as a guest. So we had a long meeting with Dr Sunier in his large office in Amsterdam, were shown around in Arnhem by Reinier van Hoof, had coffee with the animal dealer van Dijk in Tilburg, and ate lunch with several staff members in Rotterdam. And in trains and buses Gerard and I talked and talked about zoos and zoo animals. The evenings were spent in the cosy home of the van Dams. This was a time when there were severe housing problems everywhere in Europe, but Gerard and his wife had found a solution to their problem. They had bought an old train waggon and converted it into a small house.

 

When Gerard learned that I planned a Danish edition of IZN, he decided to do the same in Dutch, so early in 1952 International–Dierentuin–Nieuws appeared. Gerard's Dutch edition was much more professional than both my international and Danish editions, and was an omen of what would come. Late in 1952 I had to give up as publisher of IZN. The deficit had grown too big for an 18-year-old boy. Soon, Gerard wrote me that he would like to try his luck with a new launch of International Zoo News. Would I give him my blessing? Of course I would, and in January 1954 the first issue of his IZN was published – a magazine much closer to today's version than the rather primitive issues that I had published.

 

In his first editorial Gerard van Dam wrote that he hoped to create a magazine which would `be a medium valued by all zoo directors' and which could `strengthen the ties between zoos in all parts of the world.' And this is what he did indeed create.

 

Bent Jørgensen

 

[IZN's 25th anniversary issue in 1976 included an article by Gerard van Dam entitled `Has my ideal been realised?' As copies of this issue have long been unobtainable, we reprint this article below, both as a tribute to Gerard van Dam and as a small contribution to zoo history.]

 

`May this paper prove to be a medium valued by all directors of zoological gardens which will strengthen the ties between zoos in all parts of the world: my ideal will then be realised.'

 

These were my first words in the new-look IZN which was issued in January 1954, after I had taken over the paper from my good friend Bent Jørgensen. The first IZN from Holland now looks rather poor: only 10 pages, with two photographs, a cover picture, and news from only 15 different zoos.

 

From my childhood – about six years of age – I lived in the small Dutch town of Rhenen, where the still existing Ouwehand Zoo attracted my full attention. Since that time in 1933, I spent every spare minute of my life in that zoo which was still in its developing stage. As a little boy, I am told, I had the correct feeling for handling animals; and until the age of 18 I had `worked' as a freelance in all departments of this zoo, and I gained a lot of experience in everything which went on on both sides of the bars.

 

Growing up, I spread my wings; I got in touch with other zoos and zoo people, inside Holland and later on, when the Second World War was over, throughout the world. I collected zoo guides and postcards, corresponded with zoo directors, asked them for recent news, and visited zoos in and around Holland.

 

Some time in 1950 I had close contacts with numerous zoo directors in Western Europe; and from talks with them I learned that there was hardly any communication on an international scale between the zoos. This hurt my feelings as a Public Relations Officer, for which job I was now well trained. So I started looking for ways to improve this situation, the more so since I pretty well understood that only by cooperation on an international scale could the zoos in future survive and overcome all the wildlife conservation problems which threatened.

 

On a lucky day in 1951 I accidentally found in a zoo's library a copy of Bent Jørgensen's International Zoo News; from that moment I clearly realised that such an information bulletin could serve as a unique communication medium. I got in touch with Bent Jørgensen, became one of his closest co-workers, and during one week in 1952 we both visited 12 Dutch zoos and laid a perfect foundation for the future of International Zoo News, our mutual baby.

 

When the Danish IZN got into financial trouble, I took over the whole business; and with the moral and financial assistance of the zoos in Manchester, England, and Rotterdam, Holland, I started the new IZN from the Dutch Zoo-Centrum.

 

I recall with gratitude the fine co-workers from the very beginning such as Marvin L. Jones, U.S.A., Marcel Langer from Switzerland, Bent Jørgensen from Denmark, Sigrid Hettwich from Berlin; and later on Pierre Brouard from France, Geoffrey Schomberg from England, Bebbo (P.L.) Florio from Italy, and Ken Kawata from Japan. Without their enthusiastic assistance it would never have been possible now to celebrate the 25th anniversary of International Zoo News.

 

For many consecutive years the `old' IZN published the annual zoo attendance lists and the number of animals, divided into species, on exhibit in the world's zoos. These pages formed unique items in those times, because this information could not be gathered from any other source.

 

Rather sensational was the article, published in IZN in July 1954, on the USSR's leading zoo, the Moscow Zoo Park; in fact that report was the first sign of life from Russia after World War II, and readers much appreciated this rare information.

 

Zoo animal exchange on an international level started around 1954. The Manchester Zoo, England, wrote me in a letter: `The value of IZN has just been demonstrated by a letter recently received from Rotterdam Zoo, who say that they read in the September number that we have three female polar bears in our zoo and that, as they have three males, they would like to exchange one of their males for one of our females.' Result: the polar bears were exchanged between Manchester and Rotterdam. Since then hundreds of animals have been moved by means of my mediation.

 

In January 1956 Zoo-Centrum published a very special publication called List of the Zoological Gardens of the World, containing 531 addresses of zoos all over the world. As far as I know this was the most up-to-date list ever published, and it brought me a lot of enthusiastic reactions from every corner of the globe. This publication was important in increasing the popularity of IZN.

 

Another uncommon source of information at that time (1956) was a series of diets for captive wild animals, as developed and used at the Philadelphia Zoo, U.S.A. These articles were made possible by my good friend H.L. Ratcliffe, who gave his kind permission to print them in IZN. Some months later Dr Hans Wackernagel wrote a worthwhile article on the new feeding system at the Basle Zoo, Switzerland.

 

Looking back on those old days I remember the annual conference of the International Union of Directors of Zoological Gardens, held in 1956 in Chicago. The president, Mr Walter Van den Bergh of Antwerp Zoo, Belgium, paid special attention to my proposal to find a way to cooperate closely with the Zoo Union. Most members liked my work and my paper, but they decided that it was impossible for an `outsider' to act on behalf of the Zoo Union in an official capacity. Since then I have made numerous attempts to achieve some kind of cooperation with this Union and with other national zoo associations, but, alas, I cannot say I was very successful.

 

I believe it is useful to mention that the editing of IZN, and all work connected with it, had to be done in my spare time, purely as a hobby. I have done this work for twenty years: every free minute of my life I spent on my paper, writing thousands of letters to all parts of the world, to collect news items, to hunt after special articles, to gather zoo guides and to do the enormous administration. I have given the best twenty years of my life to this interesting project, and only a very severe illness was able to stop me, at the end of 1973.

 

International Zoo News grew satisfactorily: in 1954 the volume numbered 56 pages, in 1959 ran to 196 pages and in 1973 three hundred pages. Building up a real contact organ is most difficult in the first five years; later on you have formed such a great number of contacts that the news and articles flow in automatically.

 

A great deal of my time was spent on correspondence with friends; I remember that I have had weeks on which more than one hundred letters were sent out. Especially in the first ten years, many zoo directors contacted me with specific questions on such things as feeding, diet advice, animal exchange, animal housing, and so on.

 

IZN was a hobby of mine; the logical (?) consequence was that I sent hundreds of copies free of charge to zoos which could not pay, for whatever reason. Personal requests from zoo keepers, zoo veterinarians, students, private collectors and so on were always answered by sending free copies, year after year. So now and then this method caused financial problems because the incoming subscriptions and the advertising fees did not cover all expenses. Fortunately numerous zoo directors understood this and have done me the great favour of sending additional money.

 

From the beginning my ideal had been to publish an important contact magazine in which all zoo directors throughout the world gave their news and advice and told of their problems and their plans: a magazine so closely concerned with each zoo director as to be indispensable.

 

I have always believed in one international zoo paper serving all zoo people in the world. Mutual contacts and mutual exchange of relevant information must be promoted. Every zoo man needs this kind of guidance. Moreover experience has shown that only a careful exchange of animals will guarantee a zoo's stock. Natural resources are drying up; civilization and human expansion are going on. Where will the world's fauna live? Only the zoo with the utmost sense of responsibility can save the rest of the world's animal kingdom. Modern methods will assist zoo people; one of the necessary instruments is an intensive mutual contact with colleagues with equal interests.

 

International Zoo News has been, and still is, an excellent tool! Only when a great percentage of zoo directors use this tool in all its aspects will my ideal finally be realised.

 

Gerard van Dam (1976)

 

 

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HUSBANDRY OF DHOLES AT SAN DIEGO WILD ANIMAL PARK

 

BY FARSHID MEHRDADFAR, JUSTIN CHUVEN, KELLY CASAVANT, AND KAREN BARNES

 

Introduction

 

Dholes (Cuon alpinus) belong to the family Canidae, though finer classification is in dispute (Kleiman, 1967; Fox, 1971; Clutton-Brock, 1976). They are the only members of the genus Cuon. Their range includes central and east Asia, from China (Manchuria) in the north to India and the Malay Peninsula in the south. They are also found on the islands of Sumatra and Java, but are absent in Borneo, Sri Lanka, and Japan (Johnsingh, 1985). They are adapted to a wide variety of climates and habitats including steppes, scrub, dense forests, and mountainous alpine regions. Due to their secretive nature and the remoteness of their habitats, dholes are seldom studied. They are referred to by a variety of common names including Asian/Asiatic wild dog, Indian wild dog, and red dog.

 

Cuon alpinus is included under Appendix II of CITES, and listed as Vulnerable by the IUCN. As of 3 January 2003, ISIS listed the international captive population of the species as 73.58.4.

 

Dholes vary in color, typically having a reddish-brown coat with a whitish belly and chest. They have a bushy, partially black tail. Their legs are stout and their ear tips are rounded. One feature which distinguishes them from other canids is the presence of six molars in their lower jaw instead of seven. This gives them a shorter muzzle, and hence a stronger bite (Alderton, 1994). Females differ from other canids by having twelve to fourteen teats instead of the usual ten. They can weigh from 28 to 44 lbs [approx. 12–20 kg]. Their life-span in captivity is 10 to 16 years (Alderton, 1994).

 

Dholes have a complex social system much like that of the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus). Since they live in such a wide variety of habitats, their prey is diverse. They have been known to hunt musk ox, ibex, mountain sheep, various deer species, rodents, rabbits and even turtles in some parts of their range (Cohen, 1977). They are primarily diurnal and crepuscular, but are occasionally active during the night.

 

They have a complex vocal repertoire that serves many organizational and social functions (Johnsingh, 1982). Their vocalizations include a unique whistling sound, whines, yelps, yaps and growls. Dholes are seasonal breeders across most of their range, with the exception of southern regions, where they may breed at any time of the year (Bueler, 1973). Typically, only one female in the pack bears young each season.

 

Dholes are kept in several zoos in Europe and Asia, but the group at San Diego Wild Animal Park is the only one in the United States. Since their arrival, interest in this species has been expressed by the Canid Taxon Advisory Group and by other American institutions. In this paper we present the husbandry routines which have been successfully established at the park.

 

Collection and housing

 

Our collection consists of 3.2 dholes. The animals were shipped from Moscow Zoo, and following quarantine at San Diego Zoo, were received by the Wild Animal Park in May and June 2001.

 

The dholes are kept in an off-exhibit area, located in coastal chaparral habitat which is home to a variety of native species including mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), coyotes (Canis latrans), and various birds. Temperatures vary year-round, ranging from occasional freezes to over 100°F [38°C]. They are housed in six long, narrow pens, built side by side in an area removed from other captive animals. The pens measure 40 feet by 70 [12.2 ´ 21 m] and are surrounded by chain-link fence topped with in-rigging. The pens have a grass substrate with shade trees and bushes. In each pen, there is a molded plastic house, 4 feet by 4 feet by 6 feet high [1.2 ´ 1.2 ´ 1.8 m], placed on a cement pad; the house is bedded with hay during the winter months. A shade structure consisting of four metal poles with a corrugated metal top is situated above each plastic house.

 

Around the perimeter there is a second chain-link barrier to prevent contact between the dholes and native wildlife. A covered alley runs along one end of the pens. There is a gate in each common fence line. These gates, as well as the front alley, can be used to shift animals between pens.

 

Dholes have an affinity for water. Each pen is provided with a 50-gallon [190-liter] rugged plastic tub, which is filled with fresh water each day. The water tub provides great enrichment for the animals year-round. They often walk through it in order to cool their feet, and sometimes lie down and soak for a few minutes.

 

In May 2002, two dholes were paired for breeding. They have the use of two pens, each with multiple options for denning. The remaining three animals are housed in individual pens, but have visual, olfactory, and tactile access through the chain-link fence. One pen has been left empty between the pair and the other three animals. The fence line between the pair and the empty pen has been covered with plywood, with the exception of one section where a `window' was left. This gives the pair visual contact with the other dholes, but also allows them the option to seek privacy.

 

One of the pair's two pens has a small catch-pen in the back. Access to this can be controlled from an adjacent alley. Each pen has a molded plastic house; in each is an extra large vari-kennel. Each kennel is angled to provide privacy and is pushed toward the back of the house to provide a `porch' on the front portion of the cement pad. Hay is packed around the sides, behind and above the kennel to provide insulation. The female has shown a strong preference for one of the houses. The pair also has a plastic `dog loo' and two lean-tos (one provided with a nest box).

 

Husbandry

 

When the dholes first arrived, they were very flighty in the presence of keepers and ran up and down the fence line jumping off the fence. To address this, a small group of three keepers was chosen to care for them. With consistent care, the dholes have calmed significantly. They are playful with the keepers at times, and are never really aggressive. We are always impressed with their swiftness and agility as they move between and over items in their pens. Since there is no aggression toward keepers, we are able to service the pens without the need to shift the animals elsewhere. This is very beneficial for collecting fecal and urine samples to support research goals.

 

Each animal is fed two to three pounds [900–1350 g] of Natural Balance Carnivore diet (5% fat) five days per week. One day per week, they each receive a rabbit. One day per week is a light feed day; on this day, they receive a bone, and a small amount of meat. For enrichment purposes, they also receive a bone on one of their regular meat days.

 

The dholes are usually hand-fed through a chain-link or crate door barrier. Their food is distributed over two feedings, which allows us more time to work with them and gives us the opportunity to administer bi-daily medication when prescribed. We have offered a variety of food items for enrichment, training, and medication purposes. Dholes are finicky eaters, but we have had some success with beef heart, bone marrow, lamb, and Natural Balance carnivore diet (15% fat).

 

To properly care for this species, it was evident that an operant conditioning program would be needed. On average, an animal receives ten to fifteen minutes of husbandry training four to five days per week. Our primary focus has been crate training. In order to make the process as comfortable and stress-free for the animals as possible, we have designed a squeeze crate specialized for dholes (see Appendix A). We also include other behaviors which may facilitate management goals, such as `stand' to observe their feet and `scale' to obtain weights. Additional behaviors, such as `sit' and `down', have been included to provide variety during training sessions.

 

We have found our dholes to be a challenge to train; they are not necessarily food-motivated, and interest in doing behaviors is inconsistent. However, we have made progress and continue to work with this fascinating species. The operant conditioning program is labor-intensive but has proven to be instrumental in the well-being of this species.

 

Conclusion

 

The dholes have adapted to the described system of management. Basic husbandry routines have been established to help meet the research and breeding goals for which this species was brought to our facility. Consistent care, specialized husbandry tools and a willingness to explore creative options have been key factors in learning how best to care for this species. Further study will allow us to refine our husbandry techniques, to facilitate research goals and to develop successful protocols for breeding this species.

 

Appendix A: Specialized Squeeze Crate

The crate is made of aluminum and has features to facilitate training and husbandry procedures. It measures 60 by 22 by 28 inches [1520 ´ 560 ´ 710 mm] (external dimensions) and has one panel that can be manually pushed on rollers to decrease the width inside the crate. A quick-release ratchet system along the top aids the squeeze process by preventing an animal from pushing back against the keeper's efforts. Opposite the movable panel is a wall made of perforated aluminum; half-inch [13-mm] diameter holes in this wall allow for syringe access and for viewing of the animal. At the base of the perforated wall, there are small doors that span the length of the wall, allowing access to different parts of the animal's body. Each door is three inches [75 mm] tall, and slides along half of the crate. At each end of the crate, there are double doors that slide vertically; one is made of clear Plexiglas and the other of solid aluminum. Each door fits into a plastic runner, which aids smooth and quiet closure of the doors. The top of the crate has four small, hinged doors that provide access to the animal from above. These doors provide the opportunity to administer topical medications such as Frontline® flea and tick preventative.

 

Acknowledgements

We wish to thank Paula Augustus and Rebekah Whelpley for commenting on the manuscript. We are grateful to the management of the Zoological Society of San Diego for supporting a labor-intensive approach to meeting the husbandry needs of this species. Please feel free to contact us for further information on this article.

 

References

Alderton, D. (1994): Foxes, Wolves and Wild Dogs of the World. Blandford, London.

Bueler, L.E. (1973): Wild Dogs of the World. Stein and Day, New York.

Clutton-Brock, J., Corbet, G.B., and Hills, M. (1976): A review of the family Canidae, with a classification by numerical methods. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Zoology 29: 117–199.

Cohen, J.A. (1977) A review of the biology of the dhole or Asiatic wild dog (Cuon alpinus Pallas). Animal Regulation Studies 1: 141–158.

Fox, M.W. (1984): The Whistling Hunters: Field Studies of the Asiatic Wild Dog (Cuon alpinus). State University of New York Press, Albany.

Johnsingh, A.J.T. (1982) Reproductive and social behaviour of the dhole, Cuon alpinus (Canidae). Journal of Zoology (London) 198: 443–463.

Johnsingh, A.J.T. (1985): Distribution and status of dhole (Cuon alpinus Pallas, 1811) in South Asia. Mammalia 49 (2): 203–208.

Kleiman, D.G. (1967): Some aspects of social behavior in the Canidae. American Zoologist 7: 365–372.

Farshid Mehrdadfar, Justin Chuven, Kelly Casavant and Karen Barnes, San Diego Wild Animal Park, 15500 San Pasqual Valley Road, Escondido, California 92027, U.S.A. (E-mail: Fmehrdadfar@sandiegozoo.org, klbarnes@sandiegozoo.org, CRESWapKeeper@sandiegozoo.org.)

 

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VOCALIZATIONS OF JUVENILE CHEETAHS DURING FEEDING AT SCHÖNBRUNN ZOO

 

BY ANGELA S. STOEGER-HORWATH AND HARALD M. SCHWAMMER

 

Introduction

 

All cat species use sound communication at close, medium and long distances.

Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) have a very complex vocal communication system uttering various sounds, yet the complete acoustic repertoire has not been analyzed and information about the acoustic structure is rare. Most vocalizations in felids are generated by oscillations of the vocal folds during exhalation (Peters, 1991); but there are a few vocalizations which regularly include inhalatory sound production. Hissing is a sound which can probably be performed without laryngeal sound generation (Peters, 1991). Also, as a vocalization, purring is peculiar in that it can be produced continuously during both phases of respiration.

 

Many of the cheetah's calls are unlike the sounds of other cats, particularly the two discrete cries, `chirping' and `churring', which are often given alternately and repeatedly, at varying intensity. The chirp, which sounds like a high-intensity call of a bird, is the usual call given by females to summon hidden or lost cubs, by greeting or courting adults and by cubs around a kill. The intensity of the call reflects the degree of excitement.

 

`Churring' is a growling sound and, like the chirp, is used on many occasions.

In anger or fright, cheetahs `growl', `snarl', `hiss' and `cough'. When forced to surrender its prey to another predator, a cheetah may hiss and sometimes moan loudly.

 

`Bleating' is a sound of distress: for example, a female circling a lion who had stolen her kill uttered a `growling bleat' (Peters, 1991).

 

Contended and friendly cheetahs purr like huge housecats, especially while greeting or licking each other.

 

Cubs squabbling make a whirring sound (possibly equivalent to growling in other cats), which may rise to a squeak at peak intensity and subsides to a rasp.

 

A sound like `nyam, nyam, nyam' is associated with eating; and other calls heard between mother and cubs include `ihn, ihn, ihn', which like chirping is used to summon young. A sharp `prr, prr', elicits close following when the mother is moving. A short, low-pitched sound makes the cubs stay still.

 

Table 1 shows a preliminary overview of the calls uttered by cheetahs.

 

Table 1. Acoustic calls of the cheetah – a preliminary overview (modified from Peters, 1991).

Behavioural context                 Call type

Courting, greeting, summoning young,      chirping (or yelping)

cubs around a kill                  churring

 

Anger, fright                       growling

                              snarling

                              moaning

                              hissing

                              spitting

 

Distress                      bleating

                              coughing

 

Content and friendly                purring

 

Maternal and juvenile               whirring

                              nyam nyam

 

Mother calling cubs                 ihn ihn

`Follow me'                   prr prr

 

Schönbrunn Zoo, Vienna, Austria, has a long tradition in keeping cheetahs, and the birth of four (2.2) cubs on 31 May 2001 was the second breeding success, after 1999. Husbandry seems to be the key factor for a good breeding performance in felids, especially in cheetahs (Caro, 1993; van Oorschot, 1998). The basic scientific information (Lee, 1992; Lindburg, 1982; Manton, 1970, 1971; Marker and O'Brien, 1989; Marker-Kraus and Kraus, 1991) needs to be increased and the complex social behaviour still needs further investigation. Vocalization is a broad potential source of information about the mental state of animals. This information may provide an accurate estimate of animal behaviour and of the most favourable conditions for holding and breeding them in captivity. Cheetahs are a highly communicative species and vocalization seems to be an important communication channel. For that reason, the bioacoustic working group at Schönbrunn decided to start a research project on cheetah vocalization. The preliminary results presented here give a first impression of the very interesting acoustic structures of the different calls.

 

Material and Method

 

At Schönbrunn Zoo, five cheetahs, the mother Mona and her 14-month-old young, were recorded during their routine feeding in August 2002. The cheetahs were fed with freshly killed rabbits which were offered one by one through the bars, where the cheetahs could grab and seize the rabbits.

 

Recordings were made with a Sony Stereo Cassette-Corder WM-D6C, the condenser microphone AKG SE 300B and the condenser capsule CK 93. The recording distance was approximately one metre. The recorded sounds were analysed using the sound analysis program STx from the Acoustic Research Institute of the Austrian Academy of Science. The calls were recorded using the sample rate of 48 kHz and saved as WAVE files. The spectrographic examinations were analyzed using basic acoustic parameters, the fundamental frequency, the dominant frequency, the number of harmonics, the duration of the call as well the kind of modulation.

 

Results

 

Four different call types could be recorded during the feeding procedure: `chirping', `churring', `cheeping' and `yelping'. The vocalization, for the most part, occurred from the moment the cheetahs first saw the keeper with the rabbits until all of them had started to feed, when vocalizing stopped. As all the cheetahs were vocalizing at the same time, it was unfortunately impossible to assign the calls to the individual animals. For that reason, no individual differences were taken into consideration. But one can maintain that most of the calls were uttered by the four young cheetahs, because Mona (the mother) was easily recognized and she usually started feeding first.

 

`Chirping' (n = 85)

The `chirp' is, to the human ear, a bird-like sound. Like most of the recorded calls, the chirps are very short in duration, with a mean of 0.2 seconds (min = 0.1 sec; max = 0.61 sec). The chirps are modulated, rising in a mean of 0.04 seconds to the maximum frequency and descending again after reaching the top. The fundamental frequency corresponds always with the dominant frequency, starting around 2200 Hz and ascending to a mean of 3000 Hz (min = 2600 Hz; max = 3600 Hz). The call shows a harmonic structure where the harmonics may reach into the ultra-sound range. Figure 1 gives an example of a chirp.

 

 

`Churring' (n = 13)

`Churring' is a cooing sound which may last up to two seconds. The call can be modulated with several stresses as shown in Figure 2. The churring of our cheetahs shows an acoustic structure with up to five plainly recognizable upper harmonics at the stresses. The fundamental frequency and the first upper harmonic are the most dominant frequencies, at approximately 500 Hz and 1000 Hz. By looking at the acoustic structure, one can clearly see that churring consists of short, repeated single pulses lasting between 0.02 and 0.04 seconds. During the feeding procedure, the churring and the chirping were uttered alternately.

 

 

`Cheeping' (n = 18)

Hearing the `cheeping' call reminded us of a vocalizing cricket. The duration of this call is very short, around 0.1 seconds. Usually, it was uttered by our cheetahs two to three times in a row. Figure 3 shows two cheeping calls, 0.09 and 0.1 seconds in duration, with an interval in between of 0.07 seconds. The dominant frequency is around 2000 Hz. As with the churring, single pulses can be seen. But it seems to be characteristic that one cheeping call consists of three pulses, each pulse taking around 0.03 seconds. Nevertheless, it cannot be totally excluded that the cheeping call is a modulated short version of the churring.

 

 

`Yelping' (n = 25)

The `yelp' is a high-pitched call that sounds similar to a little dog's bark. Again, the duration of the call is very short – less than one second in the mean. The frequency lines increase to the end of the call for at least 300 Hz in the fundamental frequency. The structure of the call shows several harmonics. When the intensity of the call is very high, the harmonics may reach 6 kHz. Figure 4 shows a very intense yelp followed by a chirp.

 

 

Number of occurrences of each call

 

During the feeding procedure, the calls were used to differing extents. The chirp was the most frequently uttered call with 60%, followed by the yelp with 18%, the cheep with 13% and churring with just 9%.

 

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Figure 1. `Chirp'. FFT: 1024; TD: 10.66 ms; FD: 46.87 Hz; overlap: 75%; window: Hanning.

 

 

 

 

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Figure 2. `Churr'. FFT: 2048; TD: 21.33 ms; FD: 23.43 Hz; overlap: 75%; window: Hanning.

 

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Figure 3. `Cheep'. FFT: 1024; TD: 10.66 ms; FD: 46.87 Hz; overlap: 75%; window: Hanning.

 

 

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Figure 4. `Yelp'. FFT: 2048; TD: 21.33 ms; FD: 23.43 Hz; overlap: 75%; window: Hanning.

 

 

Discussion

 

Until today, the cheetah's acoustic communication system is, in the main, still unknown. No detailed descriptions about the acoustic structure of the different calls could be found in the literature. Peters (1991) described 14 different calls, but without giving details about their acoustic structure. For that reason the results of our first project produced one call (the `cheep') that had apparently not been mentioned before. Whether that call had simply not been taken into consideration by Peters, or whether the authors differ in their interpretation or definition of the calls, needs to be further investigated.

 

According to Peters, churring and chirping are used by cheetahs on many occasions, as, for example, by cubs around a kill. This statement seems to correspond with our findings, as the recordings were made during the feeding procedure. The rabbits were offered one by one through the bars, where the cheetahs could seize them. This procedure imitates the situation around a kill, were the young typically compete for the food. The occurrence of churring and chirping was therefore expected, while yelping and cheeping could be recorded in addition. All types of vocalization were expressions of excitement combined with competition for food. As soon as a cheetah got hold of a rabbit, it stopped vocalizing and started to devour the prey.

 

The bioacoustic working group at Schönbrunn are planning to do further studies of the vocal communication of the cheetah. The most interesting calls are always associated with communication between a mother and her cubs. In the case of successful breeding, recording equipment will be placed within the nest-box, to ensure the documentation of all communications between the mother and her cubs from the first day on.

 

Acoustic recordings of cheetahs living in the zoo will enable us to gain a better insight into the species' complex acoustic communication system, as it is not easy to follow these shy cats in the wild, especially females with cubs. Increased knowledge about the usage and meaning of different calls could give further important information on the husbandry requirements of this highly communicative felid species.

 

References

Caro, T.M. (1993): Behavioural solutions to breeding cheetahs in captivity: insights from the wild. Zoo Biology 12: 19–30.

Lee, A.R. (1992): Management Guidelines for the Welfare of Zoo Animals: Cheetah. Federation of Zoological Gardens of Great Britain and Ireland, London.

Lindburg, D.G. (1982): Behaviour problems in captive reproduction. Zoonooz 55 (11): 4–7.

Manton, V.J.A. (1970): Breeding cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) at Whipsnade Park. International Zoo Yearbook 10: 85–86.

Manton, V.J.A. (1971): A further report on breeding cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) at Whipsnade Park. International Zoo Yearbook 11: 125–126.

Marker, L., and O'Brien, S.J. (1989): Captive breeding of the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) in North American zoos (1871–1986) . Zoo Biology 8: 3–16.

Marker-Kraus, L., and Kraus, D. (1991): The status of cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus). Draft report to IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group.

Peters, G. (1991): Vocal communication. In Great Cats: Majestic Creatures of the Wild (eds. J. Seidensticker and S. Lumpkin), pp. 76–77. Rodale Press, Emmaus, Pennsylvania.

van Oorschot, W. (1998): Management Guidelines for Mother-reared Cheetahs in Captivity. Wassenaar Wildlife Breeding Centre, the Netherlands.

Volodina, E.V. (2000): Vocal repertoire of the cheetah Acinonyx jubatus (Carnivora, Felidae) in captivity: sound structures and their potential for estimating the state of adult animals. Zoologicheskii-Zhurnal 79 (7): 833–843.

 

Angela S. Stoeger-Horwath and Harald M. Schwammer, Schönbrunn Zoo, Maxingstrasse 13b, 1130 Vienna, Austria (E-mail: angelahorwath@hotmail.com, hschwammer@zoovienna.at).

 

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HEIDELBERG – A ZOO REBORN

 

BY JOHN TUSON

 

I first visited Heidelberg Zoo some ten years ago. At that time it was a distinctly underwhelming place, with many buildings which had no place in a modern European zoo: the elephant house and the great ape house stood out as being particularly poor. Only a strong bird collection seemed to be at all worthwhile.

 

Heidelberg's status as one of western Germany's least impressive zoos was emphasised by its position at the bottom of the heap in Stern magazine's `Grosser Zoo Test' in 2000 – only the truly execrable collections at Lübeck and Mönchengladbach – described as `small zoos' and thus judged in a different category – achieved lower scores. Perhaps more reliably, in the same year a report by Mike Grayson in Zoo! (the journal of the British-based Independent Zoo Enthusiasts Society, and normally a place in which to find enthusiastic comments about even the most unexceptional collections) decried the state of the collection, concluding `it will take a generous injection of imagination, as well as capital, to bring this place up to the standard of many other German city zoos.' But ironically, by the time Heidelberg was on the receiving end of those two attacks it had already started to make huge improvements, with a new management team in place and a new philosophy guiding its development. Today it is a zoo almost reborn. There are still big improvements to be made – that horrible elephant house remains for the time being, and one or two enclosures could still do with some drastic overhauling – but Heidelberg is well on its way to excellence.

 

Heidelberg's zoo was founded in 1932, its location the site of the former city graveyard, and opened to the public in 1934. Only the entrance building and the restaurant survive from this period; indeed, the zoo was just about the only place in Heidelberg to be bombed during the Second World War (the placement of an anti-aircraft gun in the zoo grounds explains this bad fortune). Development of the zoo in the post-war years was slow, until a spate of building was kicked off by the construction of a sea lion pool in 1973. This was followed by a house for African ungulates (1977), a cat house (1979), a bear enclosure (1981), a bird area (1985), a great ape house (1988) and a walk-through aviary for seabirds (1991). At that point, development of the zoo ceased as all available money was put aside to build an aquarium. But the aquarium never arrived, and despite receiving about 400,000 visitors a year, the zoo began to take on a rather sorry appearance. Several of the newer enclosures were inadequate: the cat house was cramped and unimaginative; the ape house, in which moats seemed to take up more space than the animals, was one of Germany's worst; the string of aviaries failed to do justice to the birds within. Older buildings, too, were poor, and overall Heidelberg had a surprisingly shabby look, contrasting sharply with the beautiful city around it.

 

In 1998, long-standing director Dr Dieter Poley retired. His interest in birds had meant that Heidelberg had built up a wonderful avian collection, but in all other respects the zoo he passed on was every bit as poor as the Stern magazine verdict would later suggest. No more than a few hours from any number of world-class zoos – Frankfurt, Cologne, Stuttgart and others are all within easy driving distance – Heidelberg was a peripheral place, doing few of the things which any modern zoo worth its salt should be doing: there was no education department, there was little involvement in conservation programmes, the collection of animals on display would have done little to inspire anyone with the wonder of the natural world. Little news emanated from the place (news from Heidelberg has never, as far as I can ascertain, appeared in IZN, for example), and, with the exception of that bird collection, the few seasoned zoo visitors who made the trip found little about which to get excited. It was at this point that the zoo turned to Dr Klaus Wünnemann to take on the challenge of its improvement. Wünnemann, a vet who had previously worked at Carl Hagenbecks Tierpark and, for six years, as curator of mammals at Magdeburg Zoo, has, I think, succeeded in turning the zoo around. No longer is it an embarrassment, but rather an example of how a failing zoo can be made to work. It is a lesson which has come too late for the city of Glasgow, which in 2003 lost its zoo, but which could well be heeded by many other European cities as they contemplate zoological establishments in need of improvement.

 

Partly, the zoo's rebirth has come about because a good team has been established: in addition to Dr Wünnemann, Sandra Reichler has come in as curator and Dr Arnd Löwenberg as the zoo's first education officer. Good keepers, too, have played their part, and while there is still progress to be made in this area there are keepers who are doing all they can to improve the zoo for visitors and animals, keenly embracing the new philosophy of the place. That philosophy places a vastly improved zoo at its centre, a zoo which is, above all, a good place to visit, and, if you are an animal, a good place in which to live: the slums are going, the husbandry is improving. But it is also a philosophy which looks beyond the zoo's boundaries, enthusiastically participating in EEPs and playing an integral part in the establishment of WAPCA – an in situ conservation programme focused on the primates of Ghana (see below). Whereas before this was a zoo which seemed to have been sleeping for far too many years, now it is a zoo which is alive and vital, an exciting place for which the possibilities seem tremendous.

 

It is the bird collection – or a part of it – to which Heidelberg's visitors are first introduced after they have passed through the zoo's entrance. One of Dr Poley's most notable and most impressive monuments is a walk-through aviary for waders and seabirds, the Kustenpanorama (`coastal panorama'). A wave machine offers a feeling of constant movement, the landscape is well done, and the birds on display – black-winged stilts, stone curlews, oystercatchers, redshanks, lapwings, and two non-Europeans, the Inca tern and the very rarely displayed grey gull (Larus modestus) of South America – look tremendous. This is a great exhibit, and one which the current zoo management were fortunate to inherit. The zoo's masterplan sees the Kustenpanorama becoming part of a group of exhibits focusing on Nature Tourism (one of five areas into which the zoo will gradually develop); a Yellowstone Park display is starting to take shape nearby, with a lake, a periodically spouting geyser, and plans for a large aviary for bald eagles.

 

While there are various aviaries dotted throughout the zoo, the bulk of the Heidelberg bird collection is displayed in a string of 25 cages (a number which will be reduced when the elephant enclosure is expanded in the near future). There is certainly little which is remarkable about the aviaries in themselves – they are uniform in shape and size, and they could certainly do with more height. But they are well planted, and geographically organised (it seems to make so much more sense to have birds housed together which might be seen together in the wild), and as a consequence this is an excellent corner of the zoo. The species which stand out as being most notable include black-billed turaco (Tauraco schuetti), crested coua (Coua cristata) and brush turkey (Alectura lathami) – none of which is common in zoos. Elsewhere, in conjunction with the EAZA Hornbill TAG, several large aviaries have been devoted to Sunda wrinkled hornbills (Aceros corrugatus) in order to facilitate free choice of mates; a large flock of Caribbean flamingos brighten up an attractive lake; and, in a thoughtful touch, a kea aviary has its floor raised so that these predominantly ground-dwelling parrots can be viewed more easily.

 

While the Heidelberg masterplan calls for the development of a series of themed areas (`Life in front of our doors', `Habitat water' and so on), today's visitor is presented with a rather more random selection of exhibits – some old, some old but refurbished, and some new. There is something reminiscent of some of the better zoos in the former East Germany about much of Heidelberg: enclosures which were once pretty awful (for both visitors and animals) have been broken up, rebuilt and reinvented. This is particularly true of the various enclosures for small cats: visitors in the past were confronted with several strings of uninspiring, uniform cages in which were contained a collection of some size (in 1998 there were a total of 30 individuals of seven small cat species). That collection has now been reduced: only 21 individuals, of five species, remain, and with just one very old ocelot left that number will shortly be reduced still further. As a result, it has been possible to combine enclosures, extend their parameters, soften their barriers. This works to particularly good effect with a large and attractive enclosure for Asian golden cats (a species for which Heidelberg runs the EEP); here, visitor viewing is through gaps in the bamboo which surrounds the cats' area, with the enclosure as a whole merging into the surroundings, rather than clashing harshly with them as it did prior to its redevelopment.

 

On a much larger scale, in 2002 Heidelberg's Sumatran tigers moved into a splendid outdoor enclosure, far vaster than the original space with which their predecessors were endowed when the house was first opened in 1979. This too merges into its setting, with viewing from specified stations rather than from the entirety of the enclosure's perimeter. Planting will, eventually, conceal the fence, except in those areas where viewing is invited; meanwhile, the tigers are able to appreciate an undulating area with abundant natural planting, viewing platforms and plentiful water. The zoo's lions and Siberian lynxes remain in their original accommodation – fine, but not as wonderful as that which is devoted to the tigers.

 

Just as the new tiger enclosure represents a massive improvement of the cat house, so too do the changes to the ape house signify a welcome upgrading of that facility. For many years the Heidelberg ape house was a disgrace. Chimpanzees, lowland gorillas and Sumatran orang-utans were all squeezed in, their outside areas tiny (and flat, too), their indoor space equally limited (visitors, meanwhile, found themselves with a great deal of space from which to observe the primates, which they did across large dry moats). There was little behavioural enrichment. A rather nasty version of the excellent ape houses to be seen in zoos such as Cologne and Krefeld, this was, possibly, Heidelberg's poorest feature. It is now, like the zoo as a whole, much improved – and, like the zoo as a whole, its improvement will continue in the years ahead. The moats have gone. Visitors and animals are now separated by glass, with the animals' space consequently far more generous. That space is furnished fully, so no longer do the animals exist within such barren surroundings, and, in December 2002, the gorillas bred for the first time. Although the youngster sadly did not survive beyond its fourth month, its birth did perhaps represent a seal of approval for the changes in the ape accommodation. The next stage is for the outside areas to be extended. For this there is plenty of space, and some interesting ideas too: director Dr Wünnemann would like to mix the gorillas with red river hogs. For the moment the great apes share their home with European genets, whose smell alone provides much stimulation.

 

Alongside the trio of great ape species can be seen several smaller primates: an active group of entellus langurs, golden-lion tamarins, Geoffroy's tamarins, squirrel monkeys (these last two adding some mammalian interest to the zoo's bird area), belted ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata subcincta) and, possibly the most notable species at the zoo, Roloway monkeys (Cercopithecus diana roloway).

The Roloways are kept in two groups and, since arriving from France, have proved the inspiration for one of the more interesting facets of the new Heidelberg Zoo – WAPCA, or West African Primate Conservation Action. This programme, co-ordinated by Heidelberg and involving around a dozen European zoos, has taken as its first challenge the primates of Ghana, specifically Roloway monkeys and white-crowned mangabeys (Cercocebus atys lunulatus). There are currently two lines of action: the first is to build a centre for endangered primates at Accra Zoo, partly to house confiscated animals and partly to spur education and research in the animals' native country; the second is to work in the field, helping the Ghanaian Wildlife Division to better run its various reserves and to increase the attractiveness of the reserves to local people by improving their own position (a current project sees snail farming being established as an alternative source of income, for example). It's fairly low-key stuff, and it won't grab headlines across the globe, but to my mind this is the sort of manageable project with which a zoo of Heidelberg's size should be involved. The sums of money required are significant without being enormous, the impact could be great. It is typical, too, of the way in which Heidelberg is going – not trying, unrealistically, to achieve the impossible, but making small steps forward, whether it be with the improvement of old enclosures or, as here, when branching out into in situ conservation work. Meanwhile, back in Germany, the captive Roloways produced their first baby in 2003. Sadly, the youngster succumbed to meningitis, but hopes are high for further breeding in the near future.

 

The mixing of species is very much a motif of the new Heidelberg Zoo. For a long while the zoo's very first exhibit, encountered even before one has paid to enter, has been of Syrian brown bears and corsac foxes, the latter happily avoiding their cage-mates in a pleasing but not over-large open enclosure. Elsewhere, one of the zoo's most aesthetically attractive displays combines red pandas with the rarely-seen Indian muntjac (Muntiacus muntjak), along with several trees and much bamboo; in 2003, another infrequently-seen species, the Indian grey mongoose (Herpestes edwardsi) arrived from Sharjah and successfully took up residence alongside the zoo's group of rhesus monkeys (this in a rather barren pit-type enclosure which, it must be said, remains one of the zoo's least attractive areas). For the future, there is talk of combining Malayan tapirs with golden cats, while the redeveloped elephant enclosure will also provide a home for Indian deer. Such mixing of species is surely to be welcomed, if it benefits the animals concerned (or if, at least, it does them no harm), for the resulting `display' can be so much more appealing – and educational – to the general public.

 

A rather more conventional mixing of species is to be found in one of the zoo's better old exhibits, an African `savannah' in which can be seen small herds of blesbok, greater kudu and Damara zebra, along with marabou storks and pelicans. Amongst the other mammal exhibits which pre-date the current management are those for Patagonian sea lions and common seals, Malayan tapirs, gayal (one of only four such herds on display in Europe), fennec foxes, maned wolves and a solitary Asian elephant. The elephant enclosure is, without doubt, the worst in the zoo; indeed, I struggle to think of a worse elephant exhibit in Europe. A small barn gives way to a barren yard. It is all rather unpleasant, but fortunately its replacement is next on the agenda for the zoo; the plan is to hold an all-female group of `retired' animals, possibly from circuses as well as zoos, in a vastly improved area. When the development is complete – and the plans look good – it will be a major milestone in the development of the zoo. A 400-m2 indoor enclosure will provide space for four cows, as well as the chital and blackbuck which already share the elephant paddock (another example of Heidelberg's propensity for mixed exhibits); the outdoor space will be improved and enlarged.

 

On a smaller scale than the proposed new elephant accommodation, there have been a number of new exhibits opened to the public since 1998. Some solidly constructed owl aviaries, a display of bees, and a walk-through aviary for ibises (and others) have all added to the zoo. Equally, a number of developments not directly related to the animal collection have appeared: a bio-gas plant means that the zoo produces all its own power, a string of play areas bring with them an ecological theme, a zoo shop has opened. In fact, Heidelberg is a zoo which is starting to take the task of looking after its visitors rather seriously. There is a programme of keeper talks, an active volunteer-led group of `info rangers', an awareness of the need for pleasant toilets and baby-changing facilities. Bi-lingual information signs for the zoo's various animals are excellent, lacking the rather stodgy conservatism of many German zoo signs whilst at the same time maintaining a degree of academic weight. The restaurant is still in need of improvement, but nonetheless, in a country which seems to be several decades behind the rest of Europe when it comes to looking after zoo visitors, Heidelberg is moving briskly into the twenty-first century.

 

On the animal front, in addition to the improvements to the accommodation for the apes and elephants, the medium-term future will also see a new house for various island-dwelling animals, including giant tortoises and Madagascan couas. The older enclosures in the zoo will continue to see improved enrichment, while one old bear pit – currently home to porcupines and raccoons (one of the zoo's more puzzling animal combinations) – will be retained as an example of zoo history, enabling visitors to see the changes which have taken place in wild animal husbandry.

 

Heidelberg is still a long way from being a great zoo, but after many years as a bad zoo it is now firmly establishing itself amongst the ranks of those collections, perhaps unique to Germany, which are neither large nor small but which bring with them scientific credibility and which provide a wonderful resource for the local community. It may never be a Berlin, a Munich or a Cologne, but, in common with places such as Rheine, Krefeld, Dortmund and Magdeburg, it is doing good things in an imaginative and intelligent way. It is encouraging to see a once-failing zoo turn itself around in such style.

 

Bibliography

Gless, F., and Handlogten, G. (2000): Der grosse Zootest. Stern 31: 47–64.

Grayson, M. (2000): Heidelberg Zoo. Zoo! 15: 14–17.

 

John Tuson, 44 Cowper Street, Hove, East Sussex BN3 5BN, U.K. (E-mail: johnnytuson@hotmail.com)

 

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KERBERT AND THE JAPANESE GIANT SALAMANDER: EARLY SCIENTIFIC ACHIEVEMENTS IN THE AMSTERDAM AQUARIUM

 

BY A.C. VAN BRUGGEN

 

Scientific research has always been one of the basic tenets of `Artis', the Amsterdam zoological gardens, particularly from the very beginning in 1838 until the crisis situation in the late 1930s. The initial period has been reviewed by Mehos (2001). One of the later outstanding zoologists was Dr Coenraad Kerbert, the second director (1890–1927). Although the end of his tenure was marked by serious financial difficulties, he should be remembered for fostering zoological research where he could (formalizing the close ties between the new University of Amsterdam and Artis), in fact taking the lead in many cases. Indeed, he authored a number of papers in various professional journals, some of which articles (such as that in 1913 on the New Guinea spiny anteaters of the genus Zaglossus) are quoted to this day. Another paper of note reports on his successful efforts to breed the common hippopotamus in Amsterdam (1922, in Dutch). In fact, Kerbert may well have been the greatest scientist among the directors of the Amsterdam zoological gardens, perhaps also because of his friendship with the university's first Professor of Zoology, Max Weber, which enabled him to encourage others to tackle various projects some of which led to Ph.D. theses [see below, but in e.g. ornithology (Kruimel, 1916) as well] and other publications. Nowadays a zoo director has precious little time for research, even should he be so inclined. Of course, many modern zoo directors are no longer university-trained zoologists, as witnessed by the fairly recent influx of veterinarians and professional managers. Already under Kerbert's successor research was mainly conducted by persons other than the director.

 

Kerbert (1849–1927; obituaries Sunier, 1927, and Weber, 1928, both unfortunately without lists of publications) started his career in 1885 in Amsterdam as lecturer in zoology in the then new university and curator of the newly erected aquarium (1882). He had already supervised the building operations in the period 1876–1882. This was one of the early large-scale inland aquarium establishments, so that he had to cope with numerous technical problems. Once these were more or less under control, he started observations on the inmates of the aquarium. Already in 1888, on the occasion of the half-century celebrations of the zoological gardens, Kerbert wrote an important and extensive treatise on the aquarium (unfortunately in Dutch). This includes an interesting overview of the history of aquariums in general from the early Chinese pond-keepers to the late 19th century aquarists.

 

One of the greatest initial difficulties was the water temperature, which in the large tanks connected to the circulation system could not be regulated at all. Enormous fluctuations throughout the year following ambient outside temperatures caused many deaths among the inhabitants. Keeping a specimen alive for over twelve months was considered an achievement of note. Heating and cooling systems were only installed much later. Also, transport of live specimens in tubs by rail left a lot to be desired – most consignments counted only a few survivors, which influenced the selection of species to be shown. Species such as thornback ray (Raja clavata, almost six years), sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus, almost five years, but one of seven arriving from Russia in 1883 survived until 1953, thereby setting a record for the species), sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, over two years), brown scorpionfish (Scorpaena porcus, two years), cuckoo wrasse (Labrus mixtus, two years), flatfish (three to five years depending on species), wels or European catfish (Silurus glanis, three years), local species of the carp family (one to six years depending on species), pike (Esox lucius, over six years), European eel (Anguilla anguilla, five years), and conger eel (Conger conger, five years), proved to be hardy. In addition, of necessity studies on various fish parasites were conducted (e.g. Kerbert, 1884).

 

Recently I acquired a curious little illustrated pamphlet in French (Kerbert, 1906) dated 14 February 1906 and entitled in translation `The aquarium of the Royal Zoological Society ``Natura Artis Magistra'' Amsterdam'. This brochure was probably intended for sale to foreign visitors. It features a few photographs, one of which depicts the author in bowler hat with the smartly uniformed head keeper in one of the service corridors above the display tanks. The first four and a half pages of this brochure treat the technicalities of the building and its installations. The major part, however, is devoted to the scientific achievements in the first twenty-odd years of the new aquarium. These may be categorized in the following three groups: (1) keeping – and also sometimes breeding – various species of fish; (2) keeping and breeding the Japanese giant salamander (Andrias japonicus); and (3) faunistic studies. In this context, Kerbert discovered two species of crab, three cephalopods and four fishes as new to the fauna of the Netherlands.

 

The results of keeping delicate species of fish were considerable. Amsterdam was enormously successful in keeping a shoal of about 50 herring (Clupea harengus) over lengthy periods (at least three and a half years!) – this species is still considered very delicate and few institutions bother with it (e.g. London Aquarium, Westminster, 1998; however, this shoal had disappeared already a year later). The aquarium claimed that keeping a light on at night prevented these fish from butting into the background rockery, thereby preventing potentially deadly damage. Breeding of lumpsucker (Cyclopterus lumpus) and pike-perch or zander (Stizostedion lucioperca) are described (see also Kerbert, 1888), the latter having been newly introduced to the Netherlands and studied in detail by Kerbert. Tropical fish were also propagated, particular mention being made of the common chanchito Cichlasoma facetum.

 

The greatest achievement (now and for ever?) of the Amsterdam aquarium is the first breeding in captivity of the Japanese giant salamander. The history of the species in Amsterdam is of great interest. The first live specimen was sent from Japan by the famous explorer P.F. von Siebold in 1829 to the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie (National Museum of Natural History), Leiden. The living specimen (the survivor of two, the larger eating the smaller during the long voyage from Japan around the Cape of Good Hope to the Netherlands) was kept in the museum from its arrival (1830) but subsequently transferred on loan to the Amsterdam zoo (1840), where it lived in a tank in the snake house until its death on 3 June 1881. The corpse should have been returned to the Leiden museum, but according to Hoogmoed (1978: 101) the specimen is to be considered lost.

 

Two more giant salamanders received in 1893 proved to be a pair who produced their first (unfertilised) eggs on 18 September 1902; almost exactly a year later (19 September 1903) the spawn proved to be fertile. By 1922 the larvae born at that time had reached `arm's length' (Portielje and Abramsz, 1922: 288)! In fact one specimen survived in the aquarium until July 1955, having been the responsibility of three consecutive directors. The egg clusters were carefully divided, so that material became available to the eager scientists and enough was left for behavioural studies after hatching and proper raising of the next generation. At least three Ph.D. theses, mainly in the field of embryology, were based on this material (Bussy, 1904; Lange, 1906; Rooy, 1907). Japanese field workers had judged that the female guards the eggs, but Kerbert proved that they were wrong and that the male performed this duty. He also described courtship, deposition of the eggs, etc. (Kerbert, 1904). The event created such a stir in the then media that the Japanese envoy travelled from The Hague (about an hour by train) to view the wondrous happenings himself in order to report properly to his emperor. Kerbert made full use of the possibilities of the unusual event to draw attention to the zoo and aquarium under his direction, in which he eminently succeeded. Only in 1979, more than three-quarters of a century later, did this huge amphibian again reproduce in captivity, this time in a zoo in its native country (Asa Zoo, Hiroshima). This was mistakenly claimed by Kawata (2001: 318), following Kuwabara et al. (1989), to be `the first captive reproduction'.

 

Kerbert died in harness on 8 September 1927 in his office, in a chair still extant in the essentially Victorian director's office. Only reluctantly had he given in to the appointment of a successor. When he died, the next director, Dr. A.L.J. Sunier, had only been serving as assistant director for two months (Smit, 1988).

 

Acknowledgements

My thanks are due to various colleagues for valuable assistance in composing this illustrated essay: Mesdames Henriette Plantenga and Charlotte Vermeulen (Artis), and Drs M.S. Hoogmoed, M.J.P. van Oijen and W. Vervoort (Leiden museum).

 

References

Bussy, L.P. le Cosquino de (1904): Eerste ontwikkelingsstadiën van Megalobatrachus maximus Schlegel. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Amsterdam, 111 pp.

Hoogmoed, M.S. (1978): An annotated review of the salamander types described in the Fauna Japonica. Zool. Meded. Leiden 53: 91–105.

Kawata, K. (2001): Zoological gardens of Japan. In Zoo and Aquarium History: From Ancient Animal Collections to Zoological Gardens (ed. V.N. Kisling), pp. 295–329. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.

Kerbert, C. (1884): Chromatophagus parasiticus, nov. gen et nov. spec. Ein Beitrag zur Parasitologie. Ned. Tijdschr. Dierk. 5: 44–58.

Kerbert, C. (1888): Het aquarium en zijne bewoners, beschreven en toegelicht. Bijdr. Dierk. Feest-nummer uitgegeven bij gelegenheid van het 50-jarig bestaan van het Genootschap: 1–98 (N.B. all papers in this special issue are paged separately).

Kerbert, C. (1904): Zur Fortpflanzung von Megalobatrachus maximus Schlegel (Cryptobranchus japonicus v.d. Hoeven). Zool. Anz. 27: 305–320.

Kerbert, C. (1906): L'aquarium de la Société Royale de Zoologie `Natura Artis Magistra' Amsterdam. 15 pp., Amsterdam.

Kerbert, C. (1913): Mitteilungen über Zaglossus. Bijdr. Dierk. 19: 167–184.

Kerbert, C. (1922): Over dracht, geboorte, puberteit en levensduur van Hippopotamus amphibius L. Bijdr. Dierk. 22: 185–191.

Kruimel, J.H. (1916): Onderzoekingen over de veeren bij hoenderachtige vogels. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Amsterdam, 93 pp. (also in Bijdr. Dierk. 20: 1–93).

Kuwabara, K., Suzuki, N., Wakabayashi, F., Ashikaga, H., Inoue, T., and Kobara, J. (1989): Breeding the Japanese giant salamander Andrias japonicus at Asa Zoological Park. International Zoo Yearbook 28: 22–31.

Lange, D. de (1906): De kiembladvorming van Megalobatrachus maximus (Schlegel). Ph.D. Thesis, University of Amsterdam, 196 pp.

Lange, D. de (1916): Studien zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des Japanischen Riesensalamanders (Megalobatrachus maximus Schlegel). Onderz. Zool. Lab. Rijksuniv. Groningen 4: 1–149.

Mehos, D.C. (2001): The rise of serious science at the Amsterdam zoo Artis. In Die Kulturgeschichte des Zoos (eds. L. Dittrich, D. von Engelhardt and A. Riecke-Müller), pp. 109–115. VWB, Berlin.

Portielje, A.F.J., and Abramsz, S. [1922]: Het Artisboek, Vol. 2. 304 pp., Zutphen.

Rooy, P.C. de (1907): Die Entwicklung des Herzes, des Blutes und der grossen Gefässe bei Megalobatrachus maximus Schlegel. Jen. Zeitschr. Naturwiss. 42: 309–346.

Smit, P. (1988): Artis, een Amsterdamse tuin. 392 pp., Amsterdam.

Sunier, A.L.J. (1927). C. Kerbert†. Zeitschr. Säugetierk. 2: 197.

Weber, M. (1928). In memoriam Dr. Coenraad Kerbert. Vakbl. Biol. 9: 26–30.

 

Dr A.C. van Bruggen, National Museum of Natural History, P.O. Box 9517, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands (E-mail: acvanbruggen@hetnet.nl).

 

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A NOTE ON THE BIRTHS OF BEARDED SAKI AND WOOLLY MONKEY IN BRAZILIAN ZOOS

 

BY DANIELA FICHTNER GOMES AND JÚLIO CÉSAR BICCA-MARQUES

 

Bearded sakis (genus Chiropotes) and woolly monkeys (genus Lagothrix) are New World primates whose behaviour and ecology have been the focus of few field and captive studies (Ayres, 1981; Kinzey, 1997a, 1997b; van Roosmalen et al., 1981). In these genera, a singleton is born after a gestation period of about 4.5–5.5 months (Chiropotes, Kinzey, 1997a; Hick, 1968, in van Roosmalen et al., 1981) or 7–7.5 months (Lagothrix, see Kinzey, 1997b; Nishimura et al., 1992). Field observations suggest that bearded sakis and woolly monkeys are seasonal breeders. Wild Chiropotes satanas give birth from December through March (before the peak in food availability, Di Bitetti and Janson, 2000; Kinzey, 1997a; van Roosmalen et al., 1981), and newborns of Chiropotes albinasus were observed in February–March (n = 7) and August–September (n = 3) (Ayres, 1981). Contrary to C. satanas, wild Lagothrix lagotricha birth season occurs after the peak in food availability (August–December, Di Bitetti and Janson, 2000; Kinzey, 1997b; Nishimura et al., 1992). In captivity, however, these primates did not show a discrete birth season (C. satanas utahicki, Malacco and Fernandes, 1989; L. lagotricha, see Kinzey, 1997b).

 

In this report, we present data on the birth of C. satanas and L. lagotricha in captivity in Brazil based on a questionnaire sent to zoos. (We do not use the new taxonomic arrangement proposed by Rylands et al. (2000), because the institutions did not provide individual identifications at the old subspecies level for this taxon.) Specifically, we requested the following data on the birth of primates: (a) species (scientific name), (b) date of birth, (c) litter size, (d) sex of offspring, and (e) characteristics of cage (outdoor or indoor).

 

Two institutions located in the State of Pará, Brazil, recorded births of C. satanas (Parque Zoobotânico de Carajás, n = 6 C. s. chiropotes [0.5.1], and Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, n = 2 C. s. utahicki [0.0.2]) from 1989 to 1998. Births of C. s. chiropotes occurred in January (n = 1), August (n = 1), October (n = 2), and November (n = 2) and of C. s. utahicki in January and May (n = 1 each). Due to the small sample size, it is not possible to determine whether this species presented a seasonal reproduction. Notwithstanding, our data appear to corroborate the study by Malacco and Fernandes (1989) that suggests captive C. satanas does not present a breeding season like wild populations.

 

Eleven (3.5.3) births of L. lagotricha were recorded from 1988 to 1996 (Parque Zoológico Municipal Quinzinho de Barros/SP, n = 8, and Zoológico Hotel Tropical Manaus/AM, n = 3). These births were distributed throughout the year (February, n = 1; April, n = 3; May, n = 1; June, n = 1; August, n = 1; September, n = 1; October, n = 1; November, n = 1; December, n = 1). A grouping of these birth records per semester (April–September and October–March) failed to detect differences in their distribution along the year (χ2 = 0.818, d.f. = 1, NS). Therefore, woolly monkeys did not show a birth season in captivity in Brazil, corroborating observations by Williams (1974, in Kinzey, 1997b) of a semi-free-ranging colony in the Murrayton Sanctuary, England.

 

Acknowledgements

We thank the personnel from the zoos who replied to the questionnaire, and the Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul for logistical support.

 

References

Ayres, J.M. (1981): Observações sobre a ecologia e o comportamento dos cuxiús (Chiropotes albinasus e Chiropotes satanas, Cebidae: Primates). CNPq/INPA/FUA, Manaus, Brazil.

Di Bitetti, M.S., and Janson, C.H. (2000): When will the stork arrive? Patterns of birth seasonality in neotropical primates. American Journal of Primatology 50: 109–130.

Hick, U. (1968): Erstmalig gelungene Zucht eines Bartsakis [Vater: Rotrückensaki, Chiropotes chiropotes (Humboldt, 1811), Mutter: Weissnasensaki, Chiropotes albinasus (Geoffroy et Deville, 1848)] im Kölner Zoo. Freunde des Kölner Zoo 11 (2): 35–41.

Kinzey, W.G. (1997a): Synopsis of New World primates: Chiropotes. In New World Primates: Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior (ed. W.G. Kinzey), pp. 258–263. Aldine de Gruyter, New York.

Kinzey, W.G. (1997b): Synopsis of New World primates: Lagothrix. In New World Primates: Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior (ed. W.G. Kinzey), pp. 264–271. Aldine de Gruyter, New York.

Malacco, A.F., and Fernandes, M.E.B. (1989): Captive colony of brown bearded sakis in Pará, Brazil. Primate Conservation 10: 34–36.

Nishimura, A., Wilches, A.V., and Estrada, C. (1992): Mating behaviors of woolly monkeys, Lagothrix lagotricha, at La Macarena, Colombia (III): Reproductive parameters viewed from a longterm study. Field Studies of New World Monkeys, La Macarena, Colombia 7: 1–7.

Rylands, A.B., Schneider, H., Langguth, A., Mittermeier, R.A., Groves, C.P., and Rodriguez-Luna, E. (2000): An assessment of the diversity of New World primates. Neotropical Primates 8: 61–93.

van Roosmalen, M.G.M., Mittermeier, R.A., and Milton, K. (1981): The bearded sakis, genus Chiropotes. In Ecology and Behavior of Neotropical Primates, Vol. 1 (eds. A.F. Coimbra-Filho and R.A. Mittermeier), pp. 419–441. Academia Brasileira de Ciências, Rio de Janeiro.

 

Daniela Fichtner Gomes and Júlio César Bicca-Marques, Faculdade de Biociências, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Ipiranga, 6681 Pd. 12A, Porto Alegre, RS, 90619–900, Brazil (E-mail: jcbicca@pucrs.br).

 

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BOOK REVIEWS

 

SAVAGES AND BEASTS: THE BIRTH OF THE MODERN ZOO by Nigel Rothfels. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 2002. xii + 268 pp., 50 illus., hardback. ISBN 0–8018–6910–2. US$34.95 (c. Euros 30 or £21).

 

Carl Hagenbeck (1844–1913) has been the subject of more biographies than any other single person associated with zoological gardens, and every book, it seems, published within the last century discussing the development of zoos, devotes at least a paragraph or two, if not a chapter or more, to the `King of Zoos' (Bernard Heuvelmans) and the `King of Animal Dealers' (James Fisher). So it was a brave student indeed who a decade ago chose to write a Ph.D. dissertation on Hagenbeck and the creation of his new zoological park in Hamburg. Doctoral theses, after all, can be expected to offer original research and concepts. But as Nigel Rothfels points out in Savages and Beasts, the updated, edited and published version of his thesis Bring 'em Back Alive (1994), virtually all of the half-dozen biographies on Carl Hagenbeck published to date (more on or by various kin) were more or less authorized, uncritical histories, promoted one way or another by the now 155-year-old firm of Hagenbeck itself. Nevertheless, the story of Carl Hagenbeck's innovations in displaying animals is well known, the establishment of a zoo that first introduced on a large scale such ubiquitous features as moated, bar-less enclosures and artificial rockwork and gardening that suggest a natural landscape, as well as the less widespread but widely recognized panorama and immersion principle offering uninterrupted views of whole groups of predators and herbivores spread over several enclosures.

 

Does Nigel Rothfels really have anything new to say on all that? Surprisingly, he does. His title, Savages and Beasts, gives a first hint of what he argues was a vital yet largely overlooked influence on the design of Hagenbeck's zoo opened in what was then a suburb but now a ward of Hamburg in 1907: his thirty-year tradition of staging ethnographic performances by visiting troupes of indigenous peoples from exotic countries and colonies. It was in 1874 that Hagenbeck first engaged Lapps – Nigel Rothfels insists on the politically correct term Sami – from Norway to accompany a herd of reindeer he had acquired, bringing with them traditional clothing, tents, weapons and other gear. A glut in the wild-animal market and an overstock of specimens for sale (although not of reindeer, apparently) had brought Hagenbeck's business – he was always first and foremost an animal dealer – close to bankruptcy. New ideas to save the company were obviously welcome, and Heinrich Leutemann, a friend and Hagenbeck's first biographer, was credited by Hagenbeck for suggesting that a show of performing Lapps amongst the reindeer marked for later sale, doing whatever Lapps do (or were assumed to do), could prove to be a money-maker. Which it was. Until his death almost four decades later, Carl Hagenbeck alone would stage over 50 anthropological-zoological exhibitions, as he preferred to call his shows, and brothers and competitors hundreds more. These spectacles, enormously popular throughout Europe a century ago, are now largely forgotten. Hilke Thode-Aurora wrote an excellent history on them published in 1989, entitled Für fünfzig Pfennig um die Welt, but that book was hardly a best-seller. An ethnographic show as a highlight of a visit to the zoo would nowadays be considered an aberration, and on the road to the modern zoo they have always, it's fair to generalize, been considered a cul-de-sac. It is Nigel Rothfels' great service to show how Hagenbeck's growing experience in mounting his ethnographic spectacles, and his observation of the public's reception of them, led to ideas culminating in a new kind of zoological park. He is also the first to give the concept of the cyclorama its due as an influence on Hagenbeck's designs for a zoo.

 

In a recent book review (of Robert Dallek's biography of John F. Kennedy) for the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, the historian Hans-Peter Schwarz reiterated the four golden rules of a biographer. First of all, be diligent, read everything you can get your hands on with reference to your subject. Secondly, don't believe anything your subject ever said or wrote; very likely he was a compulsive liar, so question everything. Thirdly, narrate your story well, keep your reader interested from the first page to the last. Nigel Rothfels, whether he was aware of them or not, certainly heeded these first three rules. Access to the Hagenbeck archives was limited, so at times he quotes secondary sources where original records might have been preferable, but who would want to blame him for that? He plainly took the second rule to heart: convinced that too many zoo historians have crowned Hagenbeck with a halo, he rarely misses an opportunity to cut him down to size. And he is a very good writer. It is Schwarz's fourth golden rule of the biographer that Nigel Rothfels would have done well to respect more: explain things, but don't moralize.

 

Those unfamiliar with the true character of ethnographic shows nowadays seem to have the impression that `savages' from faraway places were dragged to Hamburg in chains and thrown behind bars next to the monkey cages. In fact, as Nigel Rothfels does explain, they were hired in their homelands in Africa, Asia, America or wherever, given legally binding contracts (for both parties), brought to Europe, went on tour performing on stage or in the arenas provided for their shows, were paid for their work and sent back home. Many came again and again – willingly and happily. Still, the shows were controversial as well as popular in their time. A cartoon published in the Fliegende Blätter in 1885 depicts `Hagenbeck's Upper Bavarian Caravan in Nubia': a horde of beer-drinking Bavarians in Lederhosen in an arena in the African bush, doing their thing in an ethnographic show for the benefit of amazed black African onlookers. In hindsight, the shows may seem to be degrading those who performed them, and many thought that way a century ago, but Nigel Rothfels shows a tendency to word his dislike of them in a way that is neither historical nor fair to the Hagenbecks. The German term for an ethnographic show or spectacle is Völkerschau, a word not easily translated gracefully into English. Nigel Rothfels insists on calling them `people shows', conjuring up an image of freak shows or peep shows. (The author, whom I'm privileged to consider a friend, at least until he reads this review, assured me in e-mail correspondence that he had never realized that `people show' rhymes with `peep show'.) He goes on to write, on page 195 for example, that Hagenbeck's company `was based on the capturing, trading, and exhibiting of animals and people'. On page 202 he repeats that Carl Hagenbeck `made a considerable fortune organizing the capture, purchase, and sale of tens of thousands of animals and people.' Hagenbeck was an animal dealer, yes, but at no time ever did he, as Nigel Rothfels seems to insinuate, even think of capturing, purchasing, selling or trading in people. If for no other reason, it would have been quite illegal. At least `people trade' is no longer in the subtitle of Nigel Rothfels' book, as it was of his Ph.D. dissertation.

 

Making up, apparently, for all the past biographers who have piled too much praise upon Hagenbeck, Dr Rothfels takes him to task for his animal business as well. The animal trade as Hagenbeck knew and ran it is unthinkable today, and again, it was controversial enough in his time. In his own memoirs Hagenbeck reprinted another cartoon headed `Hagenbeck's coming!' showing a cage-wagon driven by animal trappers in the middle of the jungle, away from which all animals flee in panic. Nigel Rothfels writes that Hagenbeck tended to downplay the character of his new zoo as an entrepôt for his animal trade, emphasizing the `Noah's ark' character he would have preferred to give his `invention', but when one reads the old Tierpark guide-books, one notes in fact that Hagenbeck actually used his dealership as a selling point for visitors to come again: who knows what interesting animal will be here next time you come?! Considering the losses animal transports suffered, not to mention animals killed in the process of capturing others, it's legitimate to ask if an animal dealer can really sell himself as a modern-age Noah. But then, must all farmers be condemned as being cruel to animals by nature, as they always know too well what will happen to their lambs and calves come winter? The animal-rights people think they have the answer, but to judge the zoo community of a century ago by the moral standards of today is, again, hardly historical. Suggesting that Hagenbeck may not have been quite the animal lover he claimed to be even by the standards of his own time, Nigel Rothfels quotes him (on page 185) from his autobiography, writing about a walrus hunt, that `the largest bull. . . fortunately killed, had a weight of approximately 3,000 kilograms' (emphasis added). He then scolds Hagenbeck for having been `explicitly pleased that the largest bull in the herd had ``fortunately'' been killed. . .' Thankfully, he is very meticulous in giving his sources. He always quotes from the first German edition of Hagenbeck's memoirs published in 1908, not the abridged English translation (although oddly he always gives the wrong publisher and place of publication for that edition). Now when comparing what Hagenbeck really wrote in the passage quoted, it becomes obvious that Nigel Rothfels, who I know does have a good command of German, is not yet quite fluent: Hagenbeck wrote that the walrus was `glücklich erlegt', that is, successfully hunted. If he had wanted to say that the poor walrus was `fortunately' killed, he would have written `glücklicherweise erlegt'. But he didn't.

 

Nigel Rothfels' critical look at an important historical figure is certainly refreshing, although it's unfortunate that he lets his own moral standards occasionally get in the way of his scholarship. He has written a genuinely important book for anyone interested in zoos, his perspective is new and convincing, and he has also heeded what many would consider the fifth golden rule of biography: keep it short. What's important for his thesis he has kept to 200 pages of narrative; the rest are his useful endnotes. The book is also nicely illustrated, largely with pictures that make a point. Although two excellent books on Carl Hagenbeck and the Hagenbeck firm respectively were issued in Germany in 1998, the year of the company's sesquicentenary [reviewed in IZN 46 (2), 102–105], Savages and Beasts deserves a German edition. The book's few kinks can surely be ironed out in translation – and, hopefully, in a second English edition as well. Strictly speaking, it is not a biography, it's a history of Hagenbeck's Tierpark in the making. One learns little of Carl Hagenbeck as a man, a human being; it's what he represents that concerns the author. The picture that emerges of Carl Hagenbeck, nevertheless, even through the critical pen of Nigel Rothfels, is the fascinating figure of the man who did, more than any other single personality, give birth to the modern zoo.

 

Herman Reichenbach

 

DE TUIN VAN HET LEVEN: ACHTER DE SCHERMEN VAN DE ANTWERPSE ZOO EN DIERENPARK PLANCKENDAEL (The gardens of life: behind the scenes of Antwerp Zoo and Planckendael Animal Park) by R. Van Eysendeyk and R. Bocxstaele (with contributions by five other authors). 160 pp., profusely illustrated (mainly in colour), paperback. Ludion, Gent–Amsterdam, 2003. ISBN 90–5544–479–0, Euros 14.50 (= c. £10). [Also to be obtained through Antwerp Zoo.]

 

Fortunately Antwerp Zoo and its outstation Planckendael near Mechelen are well-documented; at least six books have appeared since World War II on this venerable institution. These vary from modest tomes by local newspaper reporters to prestigious treatises published on anniversary occasions (one even in three editions: Dutch, French, and English). The book reviewed here does not belong to either category – although indeed modest in size (24 ´ 17 cm), it is well-produced and lavishly illustrated with old documents and excellent quality photos, mainly in colour. The layout is thoroughly modern, the text tastefully interspersed with `boxes’ on a soft background colour: these highlight and illustrate various subjects in more detail than the main text. The authors/editors are staff members of Antwerp Zoo and are thoroughly familiar with their subject.

 

There is a good deal of history with some nostalgic photography and also details on the two species that have gained Antwerp world fame (okapi and Congo peacock), but there are also chapters on the care of the animals and particularly on the running of a modern zoological garden. Antwerp Zoo has survived two wars and various other crises but always revived, buoyed up by a strong local sentiment and official support at various levels. Plans for the future are radical and promising. The main zoo will be transformed into a series of habitats such as a tropical rainforest, a swamp, a savanna, an Arctic area and a Discovery Centre. Planckendael estate will not be altered that radically, but the intention is to adhere more strictly to geographical themes. Of great interest in the stories of ups and downs are happenings that normally are not openly discussed in zoo books for a general public. I refer to boxes on accidents in the zoo (p. 34) and on the elephant keepers (p. 75).

 

Nevertheless, a few words of criticism should conclude this review. Most of the illustrations have been captioned satisfactorily; however, there are at least 15 full-page colour photos or colour spreads (including stunning pictures of sitatunga, feeding an elephant seal, etc.) that have no explanation. An index to personal and animal names would have been appreciated, but might have expanded the book too much. Personally I would have liked to find a list of directors (1843 to date); also, the name of Prof. Agatha Gijzen, who as the first university-trained zoologist attached to the staff (1947–1974) initiated scientific research in the zoo, is sorely missed.

 

To conclude, the book (for the time being only available in Dutch) is great value for money and provides valuable documentation on these two important zoological establishments.

 

A.C. van Bruggen

 

THE ARK IN THE PARK: THE STORY OF LINCOLN PARK ZOO by Mark Rosenthal, Carol Tauber and Edward Uhlir. University of Illinois Press, Champaign, Illinois, 2003. xii + 196 pp., illus. ISBN 0–252–02861–9 (cloth), 0–252–07138–7 (paper). $49.95 (cloth) or $24.95 (paper).

 

Chicago has 26 miles of shoreline along Lake Michigan that includes many famous and respected institutions in a beautiful park setting. One of these institutions is the Lincoln Park Zoo. As one of the oldest American zoos, it has experienced the full breadth of modern zoo evolution. With a beginning similar to that of many U.S. municipal zoos, Lincoln Park Zoo was `established' when a gift of four swans arrived from Central Park, New York, in 1868. From this typically informal beginning the zoo's development shared many American experiences, which are covered throughout the book: the early menagerie aspects, turn of the century progress, roaring twenties, depression thirties (including WPA construction projects), the wars, and the post-war prosperities. Along the way there is the development of a children's zoo, changing perspectives on its collections and their care, evolution of its educational programs, and the zoo's change from a public institution to privatization.

 

Famous, and not so famous, people and animals are presented, including such well-known primates as Bushman, Sinbad, Cy DeVry, Marlin Perkins, and Lester Fisher. Many others are also included. Among the new television shows in the early 1950s was Zoo Parade – live from the Lincoln Park Zoo. Many other accomplishments are included. It is an informative and factually useful book (despite some minor discrepancies), as well as a quality picture book. In addition to being a history of one particular zoo, it is a reflection of American zoo history. It is the story of a major collection in a city that has fostered important cultural museums.

 

Supplementing the informative text are many black-and-white illustrations (mostly photographs) as well as a handful in color. There are also sidebars on interesting topics, a section on Bushman the gorilla, a bibliography, reference sources, and index. The photographs, which are numerous and have good captions, are a treat all by themselves. In addition, Mark Rosenthal incorporates personal information and insights obtained from oral interviews with the `old timers'. This is a tremendous contribution on one of our finest and oldest American zoos. It is a solid addition to the expanding list of institutional zoo histories. But we still need more of them, particularly if they are as informative and well done as this one.

 

Vernon Kisling

 

TORTOISE by Peter Young. Reaktion Books (79 Farringdon Road, London EC1M 3JU), 2003. 205 pp., 103 illus. (36 in colour), paperback. ISBN 1–86189–191–1. £12.95.

 

Tortoise is one of the first four books (the others are Crow, Ant and Cockroach) in a new series (`Animal') which will, in the publishers' words, `explore the historical significance and impact on human cultures of a wide range of animals, from insects and birds to sea creatures.' Future subjects already in preparation are wolf, bear, horse, spider, dog, snake, oyster, falcon, parrot, rat, whale and hare. On the evidence of Tortoise there seems no reason why this series should not run and run: there must be hundreds of animals whose impact on culture in the widest sense – mythology and religion, scientific thought, food, trade, craft and industry, art, literature, everyday life – has been sufficiently influential to provide material for one of these neat, pocket-sized volumes.

 

Each animal will no doubt provide a different range of appropriate topics. In Tortoise, Peter Young casts his net extremely wide. In the first chapter alone, there are quotations from, among others, Livy, Pliny, Darwin, Edgar Allan Poe, Mark Twain and Gilbert White, and illustrations which include four Tanzanian stamps featuring the pancake tortoise, beautiful (and beautifully accurate) depictions of tortoises by Edward Lear and the 17th-century artist Albert van der Eeckhout, a 1930-ish American strip cartoon, and several photos of live animals, including the best I can remember ever seeing of a saddle-backed Galápagos subspecies, and one of the famous Jonathan, a Seychelles (or more probably Aldabran) giant tortoise often claimed to have been on St Helena since the time of Napoleon's enforced residence. Regrettably, the claim is false, as Mr Young points out. However, since Jonathan may have been about 50 years old when he arrived on the island in 1882, he is a serious contender in any chelonian longevity contest. There seem to be a number of well-authenticated 150- or 160-year-olds, but as they were all wild-caught their precise ages are unknown. It may be the end of the present century before a fully-documented, zoo-hatched tortoise passes the 150-year mark. Size records are easier to verify (though even if you have suitable scales it's not that easy manoeuvring a large Geochelone nigra onto them); the champion here is apparently Goliath, at the Life Fellowship Bird Sanctuary, Seffner, Florida, who some years ago reached an astonishing 385 kg.

 

It would be easy to go on quoting snippets from this engaging book. Peter Young seems to have read everything, and has uncovered tortoise lore in the most unlikely places. In English literature, he ranges from Swift and Gibbon to Terry Pratchett and J.K. Rowling. Through history, the tortoise as a symbol has represented many different attributes – not just the obvious longevity, but indestructibility, persistence, modesty, good luck, or on the other hand cowardice, obstinacy, boastfulness, cunning, bad luck. . . Tortoises, it seems, can be whatever you want them to be. They have famously raced against a hare and Achilles. In modern times, they have been used to advertise beer, polish, stoves, chocolate and electricity.

 

When it comes to real, rather than symbolic, tortoises, mankind's influence has largely been a destructive one. The ancient Greeks made their shells into lyres, the Chinese used them to foretell the future (and in the process, says Young, wiped out an entire species, though he doesn't say which). A chapter entitled Exploitation tells the grim story. When European ships began to sail the world, from the late 15th century on, tortoises became a popular convenience food – you could load them into the hold, and they'd stay alive and fresh until you needed them. Darwin didn't think much of the meat, but the average sailor was less fussy. Naturally it was the large island tortoises that were hit hardest. Most of the Galápagos subspecies survived – just. So did the Aldabra tortoise, and – most remarkably and unexpectedly – two Seychelles species long believed extinct, as reported by Justin Gerlach in IZN 45 (1), 4–10, and mentioned briefly by Peter Young. Others were not so lucky, like the giant tortoises of Rodrigues, eaten to extinction in under two centuries from the island's discovery.

 

Long after Westerners had stopped eating tortoises, they were still being exploited on a massive scale for the pet trade. Most British people of my generation will remember seeing young tortoises, mostly Testudo graeca from North Africa, displayed for sale by the hundred, and mostly doomed to a speedy death at the hands of ignorant or thoughtless owners. Young discusses the trade, now happily banned, and notes that as recently as the mid-1970s Britain was still importing more than half a million tortoises a year from Morocco – think of that, next time you're raging over the current holocaust of chelonians in East Asia.

 

Peter Young is clearly a tortoise-lover, and writes knowledgeably about the growing efforts to conserve these animals, both in and ex situ. But really, his whole book does its bit towards tortoise conservation, by raising the reader's awareness of the major part which tortoises have always played in human life. And Tortoise is not merely a fascinating and informative read – it's a visual delight as well, with illustrations showing the use the artists of three millennia have made of tortoises to produce images as curious, comical or beautiful as the animals themselves.

 

Nicholas Gould

 

ZOOTIERHALTUNG – TIERE IN MENSCHLICHER OBHUT: GRUNDLAGEN, 7th ed., ed. by Lothar Dittrich. Harri Deutsch, Frankfurt am Main, 2000. 398 pp., illus., paperback. ISBN 3–8171–1619–5. Euros 29.80 (c. £20 or US$30).

 

Before reunification, education in East Germany was frequently ridiculed in the West because of the Marxist-Leninist propaganda that was thought by many to saturate all schools and texts. Although few could escape indoctrination classes entirely, pupils and students in fact enjoyed on the whole a solid education whether in school, the university or vocational training. Zookeepers, for example, were provided with textbooks conceived and written for their own specific purposes well before anything comparable appeared in western Germany. In 1971, the first volume of Wildtiere in Menschenhand (Wild Animals in Captivity), devoted to the basics (Grundlagen) of zookeeping, was issued by the Deutscher Landwirtschaftsverlag (German Agricultural Press) in East Berlin; editor was Manfred Bürger of Magdeburg Zoo. A volume on mammals edited by Wolfgang Puschmann, Herr Bürger's successor as director of that zoo, followed in 1975. A standard work almost immediately, the set soon found buyers in West Germany, Austria and Switzerland too, not only among zoo trainees but among private collectors and breeders as well. Six editions were issued over the next two decades. Harri Deutsch, the company that had distributed the work in the West before reunification – the original East German publishing house has long since disappeared – has now issued the first volume of a new, entirely revised, updated and renamed edition. Conceived to encompass four volumes altogether, it starts again with the basics. Lothar Dittrich, director, retired, of Hannover Zoo, is the new editor.

 

Zookeepers in Germany are rarely college or even Gymnasium – in British terms, A-level – graduates; most have only a Realschule education ending in the equivalent of O-levels. Realschüler don't get much biology, and thus the first volume of Zootierhaltung (Management of Zoo Animals) devotes about half of its pages to a text-book survey of comparative anatomy, zoology, ethology, genetics and evolution, complete with the usual line drawings and tables one expects of a school book. The first chapter, however, is devoted to a brief history of zoos in Germany, written by the editor himself, who as co-author or co-editor of six books on the history of keeping wild animals in captivity is obviously well qualified to write on that topic. But then all of the 16 contributors, twelve of whom were educated in East Germany, appear to know their subjects well. Chapters on breeding principles, animal nutrition, animal hygiene and diseases, and catching and transporting animals address the interests and needs of zookeepers more directly. Those who already have their jobs in zoos, and their training behind them, should still be interested in the chapter on zoos and conservation, written by Ulrich Schürer, director of Wuppertal Zoo and chairman of the German Zoo Directors Association, and the chapter on the legal aspects of animal protection and rights by Claus Messow, until his untimely death shortly before publication of this volume professor at the Hannover College of Veterinary Surgeons. These topics are obviously of increasing, even vital, importance to zoos in general, not just to zookeepers, and the two chapters offer as good an introduction as one could hope for. By the time you read this review, the mammal volume, again by Wolfgang Puschmann, should be on the market; the volumes on birds and on reptiles, amphibians, fish and invertebrates are scheduled for publication next year. If they keep up the standard of Volume 1, as they can be expected to, Zootierhaltung will enjoy the same appreciation among zookeepers and their directors as its East German predecessor received three decades ago.

 

Herman Reichenbach

 

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CONSERVATION

 

In situ study of Komodo dragons

 

Because of its size, the Komodo dragon has been a scientific curiosity for decades. Even so, continuous, long-term examinations of dragon biology have not been completed. Understanding the biology of this species is important for two reasons. First, like all other island-dwelling species, the dragon population is susceptible to catastrophic loss from natural events. Second, dragons have not reproduced well in captivity, and thus plans to have a self-sustaining captive population have not been realized.

 

In 2000, the Zoological Society of San Diego began negotiations with the Indonesian government to conduct the long-term studies necessary to understand the biology of the Komodo dragon. It was determined that four to five years of continuous field studies would be needed to answer key biological questions. In 2002, the Komodo study became one of the Society's Millennium Postdoctoral Fellowship projects with the hiring of Dr Tim Jessop, who would live in Indonesia and oversee the program.

 

The two key aims of this project were to implement broad-scale studies to investigate the biology of the terrestrial fauna and flora in Komodo National Park, with particular emphasis on the reproductive and population biology of the endemic dragon. Second, this project seeks to promote a capacity-building program between staff of the Zoological Society and staff at Komodo National Park and Udayana University in Bali. This program will provide these Indonesian institutions with a collaborative basis to undertake integrative research to foster management and conservation of terrestrial species within the park.

 

During 2002, research activities included general wildlife and habitat monitoring of fauna and flora on Komodo Island. These surveys provided information on general distribution patterns of large mammals, including Timor deer, water buffalo, and wild pigs, all prey species of the dragon. Vegetation communities within the park were also characterized for Global Information System mapping applications, as well as for identifying the locations of exotic plant species such as the invasive prickly pear cactus.

 

A major effort in 2002 was to determine the location of Komodo dragon nesting sites as an index of the annual female reproductive rate. An intensive survey of all the major valleys within Komodo Island revealed 38 nesting sites, of which 26 were active during the year. In August, it was noted that females arrived at these nesting sites to take up residency for at least five months, during which time they exhibited nest construction, maintenance, and defense. A mark-and-recapture study was initiated on the dragon population. This will enable us to gather information on the species' basic life history, including growth rate, survivorship, and age at first reproduction. Blood samples were also taken from all captured dragons to enable genetic sexing and studies concerned with population genetics.

 

Some of the preliminary information from this study revealed that the dragon population inhabiting Gili Motang, a small island in the south-eastern part of the national park, exhibited differences in its population structure. Most noticeably, juvenile and large adult dragons were not captured, suggesting that these size classes were absent or very scarce. Further research will be conducted in 2003 to determine if this unusual population signature is a result of human activities interfering with food availability on this island, or if it is a result of natural variation in body size between the different island dragon populations.

 

Abridged from John A. Phillips in CRES Report (Fall 2003)

 

A valuable tool in conservation management

 

VORTEX is a simulation programme that provides realistic ideas of how an animal population will develop, given that assumptions made in the different scenarios are valid. It is a valuable tool to assess the relative impact of different factors, such as hunting, change of death rate, or loss of habitat, on a population, allowing us to model the development of a population over time under certain circumstances. The simulations incorporate basic data, e.g. birth, death and dispersal rates, inbreeding and carrying capacity of the habitat. These data have to be entered first, and that is actually the most difficult part of the process – many of these data are not available for most species, and have to be entered as a `best guess' estimate. VORTEX's greatest value lies in enabling comparison of different scenarios: it provides us with arguments to use when prioritising potential conservation activities – arguments that are based on complex analyses of hard core data and best estimates.

 

CBSG Europe recently hosted a workshop at Copenhagen Zoo introducing a Windows version of the programme, as VORTEX was developed by CBSG more than a decade ago as a DOS-based programme. The workshop was attended by participants from North America, Costa Rica, Mexico, India and Europe and was led by the new chairman of CBSG, Bob Lacy, who is also one of the main architects behind the VORTEX programme. To some people this may sound like a boring workshop for computer freaks, but it was just the opposite. The workshop was a brilliant training exercise in the use of a valuable tool in conservation management. Starting at the coin-flipping level (the basis for the simulations), we ended with sophisticated discussions about how to model the behavioural changes that occur in the wild when the environment changes. Furthermore, we discovered some new `bugs' in the programme that had to be repaired. Some were fixed during the meeting, others had to be taken back to the United States to be repaired. So, both parties benefited from the workshop: Bob Lacy by getting the bugs fixed, and the participants by learning about the new version and the many valuable aspects of the programme.

 

Abridged from Bengt Holst in EAZA News No. 44 (October–December 2003)

 

Massive breeding effort to save toad

 

Zoos from all over the U.S. and Canada are jointly contributing thousands of captive-reared Puerto Rican crested toad (Peltophryne lemur) tadpoles to help restore the population of this critically endangered species. Only 300 live in the wild, but that's a hundred more than a decade ago. The latest batch brings the number of tadpoles released in the last decade to nearly 100,000. The release of tadpoles, rather than toadlets, is believed to increase the likelihood of imprinting on the natal pond habitat and allows natural selection to occur at a stage in which large losses can be buffered by the relatively high numbers of released animals. Fewer than one per cent survive, though this is described as `about normal for toads in the wild'. Another problem is that only one wild colony exists, down from nine breeding ponds in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, and biologists are looking for additional sites.

 

HerpDigest (www.herpdigest.org), 2 November 2003, with additional information from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service website http://endangered.fws.gov

 

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INTERNATIONAL ZOO NEWS

 

Baltimore Zoo, Maryland, U.S.A.

 

The zoo is being forced to lend out its beloved African elephants Dolly and Anna, victims of budget cuts that claimed 20 jobs and are forcing the removal of about 400 reptiles, amphibians and birds. The loss of the elephants will be the most visible sign of the zoo's struggle to stay afloat after a $700,000 reduction in state aid, compounded by a sagging economy and a year of terrible weather. In total, the changes are expected to save the zoo more than $1 million. The 20 job cuts will bring employment down to about 150 people.

 

Zoo officials hope the two elephants can be bred and then return to Baltimore, with their young, in a few years when the zoo is financially stronger; but it might take six months or longer to find homes for the animals, both in their late twenties. The planned reduction in the animal collection also entails sending some cranes, flamingos and a number of ducks, reptiles and amphibians to other zoos. The animals that are being chosen do not fit into the zoo's new focus on wilderness and environmental hot spots.

 

The cuts come within weeks of the opening of the zoo's new $7 million Polar Bear Watch exhibit, which features a tundra buggy from which visitors can view the bears. The 57-foot-long [17-m], 12-foot-high [3.6-m], 25-ton, climate-controlled observation vehicle is the type used to observe animals in the wild. `There's a certain irony associated with that,' comments Billie Grieb, president of the zoo. `There's some money that's been given to us that can only be used for capital projects. We're in the position of having the money to build but being very pinched in terms of having the money to operate.'

 

Abridged from Baltimore Sun (5 November 2003)

 

Belfast Zoo, Northern Ireland, U.K.

 

In recent years, the zoo has had a period of consolidation, and fewer new species have joined the collection. While, on occasion, we still obtain carefully selected new species, much of our efforts have been put towards establishing healthy and breeding populations of our existing stock. A high priority in the selection process has been given to those species whose wild populations are facing the threat of extinction, particularly where there are established captive-breeding programmes. In addition, wherever possible and relevant, we try to work with groups of related animals, particularly where there are close parallels between them in their captive management. With limited resources, it is vital that zoos use their resources to the best advantage, and one direction in which we feel this can be achieved is in specialization.

 

An advantage of such specialization is that it gives us the chance to exhibit to visitors a number of related taxa, which have evolved in response to similar stimuli. Thus, Belfast Zoo visitors are able to see interesting ranges of related animals, with the opportunity to contrast and compare the slight differences in their adaptations. One such area of specialization has been our collection of monkeys, and our larger species are now represented by a wonderful collection of African and Asian leaf-eating monkeys, also known as colobines. They are a fascinating group of animals, a key feature of their biology being their ability to eat and digest large amounts of cellulose, and their wild diets are predominantly composed of leaves, unripe fruit and seeds. These animals have several features found in no other primates, including a sacculated, or chambered, stomach which supports colonies of bacteria, and specialized teeth.

 

These specializations have made them a difficult group of animals to maintain in captivity in the long term. The provision of a suitable diet is perhaps the single most important facet of their captive management. Large areas of the zoo have been planted with shrubs, and these not only provide an attractive and natural backdrop to many of the animal enclosures, but also provide a valuable source of leaves and branches for our colobus monkeys and langurs, who are offered large amounts of leaves and branches on a daily basis.

 

Our first black-and-white colobus monkeys arrived here in the early 1970s, and we have been breeding this species ever since. The large breeding group of Kikuyu colobus, which currently numbers an impressive 18 animals, featuring a number of different generations, bears testament to the success we have had for many years. More recently, breeding groups of three langur species, François's, purple-faced and Javan brown, have been established in the zoo. Though their management is similar to that of the colobus, their captive requirements are slightly different, and our acquisition of breeding animals did not start until we had gained experience with a number of male Javan browns in 1993.

 

We have successfully bred all three species of langur during 2003. Of particular interest are the four babies born to our group of François's langurs. While three of the infants are being parent-reared, the fourth baby was rejected by his mother and has been hand-reared by zoo personnel. This is the second time we have achieved this, the process being difficult, delicate and extremely time-consuming.

 

It is rather sad that colobines are generally poorly represented in zoos, as a number of species are critically endangered in the wild and it is highly likely that captive breeding will become an even more important part of their conservation. Our tremendous recent success with the species we hold is an encouraging start for us to further develop our expertise in this area.

 

Abridged from Mark Challis in Zoo Crack No. 56 (Summer 2003)

 

Central Florida Zoological Park, Lake Monroe, Florida, U.S.A.

 

On 23 and 25 March two wreathed hornbills (Aceros undulatus) hatched at the zoo. After 14 days, there was an obvious size difference and feeding competition was observed between the chicks, which led staff to pull the second, smaller chick for hand-rearing. To avoid imprinting on humans, the chick was raised in a simulated nest cavity in an isolated room and fed using a puppet. Staff mimicked the adult hornbills' vocalizations and beak-tapping at feeding times.

 

On 22 June, the first chick and the adult female emerged from the nest cavity on exhibit. The puppet-reared chick began showing signs of restlessness soon after, and was moved to an introduction cage attached to the adults' enclosure on 28 June. Three days later, it was introduced to its natal group and the adults immediately began feeding it. Both chicks are currently thriving on exhibit with their parents. It is hoped that this puppet-rearing technique and subsequent socializations will ensure success when this hornbill is eventually paired and produces young of its own.

 

Additionally, the zoo's pair of silvery-cheeked hornbills (Bycanistes brevis) produced two chicks and raised them to fledging. The chicks hatched on 21 and 23 May, and the female and chicks emerged from the nest on 11 August.

 

Communiqué (American Zoo and Aquarium Association), October 2003

 

De Wildt Cheetah and Wildlife Trust, South Africa

 

More than five years have gone by since our last report to IZN and many changes have taken place. A major one was the sale of all our mini-antelopes – suni (Neotragus moschatus) and blue duiker (Cephalophus monticola bicolor) – to enable us to specialise in the two species we are known for and allow us to expand on enclosures previously used by the antelope. This is mainly through a generous donation from Miami Metrozoo, Florida, organised by Ron Magill, their Zoo Ambassador.

 

The last two years have been very good as far as our cheetah population goes. In 2002 we had 34 (26.8) cubs, of whom three died at under one month old. This year we had 48 (32.16), of whom 3.4 were king cheetahs. This was the most kings we have produced for a few years, as we now have a number of non-related king gene carriers. Unfortunately we again lost three cubs. One problem no one seems to be able to explain is the large imbalance of males to females born.

 

A new project started under de Wildt was the National Cheetah Management Programme. We poached the head of the government's problem animal control section, Deon Cilliers, to manage this very important programme, based on Laurie Marker's Cheetah Conservation Fund in Namibia, with adaptations for South Africa. Deon and assistant Kelly Wilson, a zoology graduate, travel thousands of kilometres throughout the Limpopo and North West provinces, helping farmers with so-called `problem' cheetahs. If the farmer is adamant that he cannot live with the cheetahs on his land – most say they take all their livestock – Deon attempts to capture the animals and relocate them to safe areas. These are normally new game reserves with adequate fencing to hold them in. So far Deon and Kelly have relocated over 60 adult cheetahs. The disturbing part of this story is that most likely more than double that number have been shot. We have photographic proof on an information board of many hunters and their victims. But fortunately this is only a small percentage of farmers – we have many that are willing to help and allow cheetahs on their farms. Those that do have a special board on their farm gates saying they are `cheetah friendly'. More information can be obtained on our web site www.dewildt.org.za.

 

Conditions for releasing cheetahs are very strict and for most landowners not financially viable. An experiment, with the blessing of the Limpopo Department of Nature Conservation and with the help of Howard Buffett, owner of Jubatus Reserve, was the fencing off of a thousand hectares of natural bush in the Waterberg area, about 150 kilometres due north of Pretoria. This was normal game fence which was then electrified to make it cheetah-proof (although the biggest culprits for making holes under the fence, which cheetahs then use, are wart hogs). An ecologist calculated the carrying capacity for the land in prey species, and we then stocked the area with impala, waterbuck, kudu and zebra. The next calculation was how many cheetah could survive on that amount of prey for two years without us having to top up prey species. The figure was one and a half cheetahs! We put in two bonded males, one wild-born, the other captive, as both would eat from the same carcass. A full-time student was appointed to follow the animals for the two years. This time is almost up, and it looks as if we got our figures pretty well spot on. Although two males are not a conservation project, the next step is to enlarge the area by 500 hectares and introduce a female. The data we get from this project will possibly allow game farmers to keep cheetahs on smaller areas than previously legislated, thus allowing us more places to relocate wild-caught cheetahs. There are many implications in this for the future, when a studbook will have to be kept and wild cheetahs possibly exchanged in years to come.

 

Our wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) continually give problems! We have 90 dogs at the moment and although we try to contracept, it doesn't always work. One contracepted female had 14 pups, and a classic remark by one of my colleagues was, `You're lucky you contracepted her, she might otherwise have had a large litter!' The dogs have all been DNA-tested in Switzerland so now, with the addition of more enclosures (there are now 21), we can keep them in specific groups. Fortunately we can still release dogs in certain areas, but few and far between as their reputation is still not of the best with farmers. Again it gets back to education, getting over the dogs' point of view. In some areas we are winning, in others it is still the constant battle against ignorance.

 

We now have our own ambassador cheetah, Byron, who recently returned from Annie Beckhelling of Cheetah Outreach. Annie specifically trains cheetahs to be used in school programmes and Byron is her newest graduate. He is taking a bit of time to settle down – surrounded as he is with other cheetahs, especially cubs, he now realises he is not the only cheetah in the world. Marilyn Dean, his handler, has faith that he will accept other cheetahs and be a true ambassador. School tours now have their own route and still manage to see all the animals as previously, but without having to cover a long distance in the hot sun. Adult tours remain fully booked throughout the year.

 

A new addition is the de Wildt Cheetah Lodge. A small piece of land next door to us (14 ha) came on the market and on it was an old two-storey farmhouse. Much time and money later the farmhouse has been transformed into a gracious lodge, where we can accommodate up to 18 people. It is very convenient for overseas visitors, as it is only an hour from Johannesburg International Airport. The next step will be a small conference centre, and eventually we hope the Lodge will help financially support de Wildt and its projects.

 

Alan Strachan, Curator, De Wildt Cheetah and Wildlife Trust

 

Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust, Jersey, Channel Islands, U.K.

 

Seventeen Livingstone's fruit bats are now living in Jersey Zoo's new bat flight tunnel, which has been designed with their needs in mind. The tunnel allows the bats, among the world's largest species, space to stretch their wings and develop their flying skills. `Working with rare and endangered species we are constantly learning about their needs,' explains Dominic Wormell, Deputy Head of Mammals. `We realised that unlike the smaller Rodrigues fruit bats, who can fly, twist and turn in smaller enclosures, this was impossible for large bats, like the Livingstone's, who need much more space to fly.'

 

But the tunnel is no glossy exhibit or monument to the architect's skill. Zoo staff hit on the idea of using an ordinary agricultural polythene to solve the problem. Relatively inexpensive and easy to erect, the poly-tunnel has the advantage that it can be altered and expanded as staff learn more about the needs of the bats. `Inside the tunnel,' Dominic explains, `the ground has been carved away to allow extra depth for the bats to swoop from their perches. This ``flight path'' will be grassed and the edges have been planted with species from the bats' home in the Comoros, so they can forage for their own food.' Because large fruit bats crash-land into their feeding and roosting sites, pillars have been padded and netting has been stretched all around the inside of the tunnel to cushion their landing and prevent injury. A web of thick ropes stretched across the ground enables the bats to clamber back up to their perches.

 

The new enclosure isn't open to the public just yet, as the bats need time to settle in and scientists are studying their behaviour as they get acclimatised to their new surroundings; but it is hoped that the new tunnel will be on view to the public next year.

 

On the Edge No. 95 (Autumn 2003)

 

Edinburgh Zoo, U.K.

 

It was decided that an old beaver enclosure would be converted into a new spacious enclosure for oriental small-clawed otters. As these otters, unlike their European counterparts, live in groups of up to 20 individuals in the wild, the enclosure was designed to hold a large number of animals (up to 15). The layout of the site, on a slope, remained the same as before, including natural bedrock, plants and pools. A team of specialists from different departments created the new enclosure with several objectives: to improve the welfare facilities for this species; to allow the animals to express their normal and natural behaviours; to replicate their natural habitat in the wild; to increase the land mass for a larger group of animals; and to deliver a project that uses natural materials which are green, sustainable and aesthetically pleasing.

 

The animals were provided with four dens supporting their natural life-style of nesting in rocky crevices or burrows in the ground. (They do not make these burrows themselves, but utilize those that other animals have previously made.) The otters use all four dens at various times. The entrances to the dens – hidden from the view of the public to provide privacy – are made from one-metre-long pipes; these lead to metre-square sleeping areas which are 0.5 m deep, heated, insulated and ventilated. The floor of the sleeping dens is lined with artificial turf. Hay is provided for nesting. Cable conduit has been installed into the dens for the provision of video cameras which will allow visitors an unobtrusive peek inside.

 

Water is continuously flowing through a series of waterfalls and pools from the top of the enclosure to the bottom, and is then recycled via underground channels back to the top. The stream connecting the pools was made to be fast-flowing, which helps build strength and adds excitement for the animals. It also means that food is washed up into the rocks on the shore, requiring the animals to search for it as they would in the wild. They also forage among plants for invertebrates. Otters have been known to suffer from kidney stones when kept in water that is too cold – they tend not to drink enough, so that their kidneys are not flushed out properly. With this in mind, one of the pools in the enclosure is heated by solar energy.

 

Plantings of bamboo and ferns complement the flowing stream; the otters bite leaves off the bamboo for use as nesting material. Trees, such as willows, were also chosen to reflect a wet area, and some interesting willow species were used. Poplar, willow, and elder trees existing on the site were retained, and offer autumn colour, while winter interest is provided by the evergreen temple cedar (Cryptomeria japonica).

 

Metal doors in the ground allow keepers access into the underground dens for cleaning and replacing hay. On two sides of the exhibit a double gate allows keepers access while protecting against otter escapes. To manage the large group of animals easily, an off-exhibit corral system was designed, into which the otters are occasionally encouraged with food. To enter the corral they must pass through a perspex tube, which is removable and can be used to catch specific animals for examination or transfer. The otters are brought into the corral only for feeding (this conditions them to passing through the tube), but remain in the outdoor exhibit at all other times.

 

Abridged and adapted from a presentation compiled by Monika Fiby in the ZooLex Gallery at www.zoolex.org. [Visitors to the website will find many more technical details and numerous colour photos of this exhibit – Ed.]

 

Harderwijk Dolphinarium (Marine Mammal Park), the Netherlands

 

A Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) was born on 22 June 2003, after a 15-month-long gestation period. The male offspring has been named Boika, meaning `fighter' in Russian. The birth lasted forty minutes, which is short for a walrus. He weighed approximately 50 kg, and was about one metre long at birth. Mother Olga and Boika are doing fine and are on exhibit. This is Olga's second calf; her first, a male named Nikolai, was born in 1995, and is still here. This autumn the Dolphinarium will present its plans for a new walrus exhibit, to be opened in 2005. This will resemble the natural habitat of the walrus and will include optimal possibilities for husbandry and education.

 

EAZA News No. 44 (October–December 2003)

 

Knowsley Safari Park, Prescot, U.K.

 

Ashanti, the first African elephant calf to be bred at the park, was born on 10 January 2003 [see IZN 50 (3), p. 178]. Then on 5 April 2003, a second baby, Nala, arrived – after a wait of 32 years since the park opened in 1971, two female elephant calves were born within weeks of each other! These are the first fruits of a breeding programme set up in 1993 when Knowsley became home to eight young elephants after the closure of Windsor Safari Park.

 

The elephant facility has undergone a £0.5 million extension to cope with the thunder of tiny feet, and to give visitors a spectacular new viewing platform. It also affords the elephants even more space, making it one of the largest exhibits in Europe. The 12-strong herd is now one of the top breeding groups in Europe, and we await eagerly the results of pregnancy tests on two more females. The successful arrival of the two calves is testament to the spacious environment the Knowsley elephants enjoy, and we are sure they will be a big favourite with our visitors this year.

 

Nick Ellerton in EAZA News No. 44 (October–December 2003)

 

Liberec Zoo, Czech Republic

 

For the first time ever, golden takins (Budorcas taxicolor bedfordi) can now be seen in a European zoo. Liberec Zoo and Beijing Zoo, China, have made an agreement to cooperate in breeding endangered species. Under that agreement Liberec became the proud owners of a beautiful pair of this particularly rare subspecies. The media have informed the general public about this event, and the takins, who have been named Adam and Eva, have already become a highlight for visitors to the zoo.

 

A new pavilion with an outside enclosure was constructed for the animals with help and consultation from skilled employees of Beijing Zoo. The takins were transported to Liberec on 16 August 2002. The male was born on 19 January 2001 at Xiang Zoo, and the female on 31 May 2000 at Beijing Zoo. The young, unrelated pair are in very good condition and expectations regarding their breeding once they are older are high. The takins experienced their first winter in Liberec and have acclimatised well. Indeed, the winter even further improved their condition, as snow is especially good for their hair, and both takins are beautifully coloured now. In conjunction with Chinese zoos, Liberec Zoo is now trying to become part of a rescue project for golden takins.

 

On 13 June 2003 a female Somali wild ass was born at the zoo. She is the sixth offspring of her mother Seyla, born in 1992 in Oberwil, Switzerland; the father is 14-year-old male Ares from Berlin Zoo. The Somali wild ass is probably extinct in nature and only some 115 animals are kept in a few zoos. Liberec has eight (3.5) animals, of whom two are out on loan to Dvur Králové, Czech Republic, and Chemnitz Zoo, Germany. Seven foals of this EEP species have been reared at Liberec since May 1991.

 

Another great success was the birth of a female blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur szechuanensis) on 25 June, the first blue sheep ever born in a Czech zoo. The parents are female Lin, born in June 2000 in Guangzhou, China, and male Siwang, born in June 1996 in Rotterdam Zoo; he came to Liberec in November 2002 from Prague Zoo, where a bachelor group is kept. Lin and Siwang copulated the day after they were introduced to each other. Blue sheep have been kept in Liberec since July 2001, as a result of an animal exchange with Guangzhou Zoo.

 

Abridged from Josef Janecek in EAZA News No. 44 (October–December 2003)

 

London Zoo, U.K.

 

Keepers from the zoo's reptile house and Dr Wolfgang Wüster (School of Biological Sciences, University of Wales) have discovered a new species of spitting cobra. The snakes, brought to London Zoo as part of an illegal pet trade confiscation, were originally thought to be red spitting cobras (Naja pallida), but have subsequently proved to belong to a closely related but previously unrecognised species, which has been named N. nubiae, the Nubian cobra.

 

Keepers noticed a difference in scale pattern and coloration, and the new species was confirmed by Dr Wüster's DNA studies. The Nubian is differentiated from the red spitting cobra by its throat and neck pattern and overall body colour. N. pallida normally has a single, broad dark band across the throat, which encircles the body and crosses the neck; the rest of the body is uniformly dark red. N. nubiae has two bands across the neck, a distinct light throat area before the main throat band, and practically all specimens feature a small dark spot on each side of the throat. The rest of the body is dark brown.

 

The new cobras at the zoo recently produced a clutch of ten eggs, all of which hatched successfully on 5 June 2003. The tiny babies are miniature replicas of their parents, complete with fully-stocked venom glands and fangs capable of spitting.

 

Terry March, Team Leader of Reptiles at London Zoo, says, `Working very closely with the animals here in the reptile house, we noticed subtle differences when the animals arrived, and collaborating with Dr Wüster has led to a new species of cobra being identified. To then see the snakes successfully breed makes it even more significant, as there is so little known about the species and much to learn.'

 

London Zoo website (www.londonzoo.com)

 

Loro Parque, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain

 

Some new and very interesting species have recently enriched our collection, the most important one probably being three (1.2) red shining parrots (Prosopeia tabuensis) from Tonga. Since we already owned a female, the new five-year-old male has joined her to form a pair; the other arrivals were a two-year-old pair.

 

Through an exchange of birds with an Austrian breeder, we were once more able to add a new species to the collection, consisting of three orange-breasted emerald lorikeets (Neopsittacus pullicauda alpinus). Thus, the Foundation's collection currently comprises 347 parrot species and subspecies.

 

In the meantime, our three young pileated parrots (Pionopsitta pileata), who hatched together with other individuals of their genus in a flocking aviary in our La Vera breeding centre, have fledged. This was the first time that this species has been bred with several individuals sharing one aviary.

 

After the foster-rearing of the first clutch of our short-tailed parrots (Graydidascalus brachyurus) by a pair of noble macaws, the female laid a second clutch whose two chicks were not removed for foster-rearing and are currently developing very well. The first clutch, however, had to be transferred into the Baby Station shortly after the young parrots got their first feathers, because the macaws started plucking them.

 

A new pair of mountain parakeets (Bolborhynchus aurifrons robertsi) also raised one chick this year, which has already fledged. The Finsch's conures (Aratinga finschi) started breeding late this year; at present, two pairs are raising three young each.

 

In spring, we received a new male Pesquet's parrot (Psittrichas fulgidus) from Austria. When he was introduced to one of our single females in a large aviary in La Vera, the two birds immediately got on well together. Soon, they both started gnawing one of the palm trunks offered to them, gradually hollowing it out, and now the female is sitting on a clutch.

 

Abridged from the report for September compiled by Matthias Reinschmidt, Curator, Loro Parque

 

Melbourne Zoo, Victoria, Australia

 

Everyone knows that koalas feed almost exclusively on the foliage of eucalypts. But this is where the simple part of the story ends. There are over 700 species of eucalypt and koalas feed on approximately 50 of these. Koalas from the north feed on different species from those of the south. They also have their favourites within these species.

 

Melbourne's animals like manna, red and blue Gum, along with messmate and narrow leaf peppermint. Where does it all come from? Over the years there have been a number of designated areas from which keeping staff have collected eucalypt browse. Staff must spend one day per week, every week of the year, cutting and collecting branches for this purpose. These days, Victoria's Open Range Zoo at Werribee has a number of plantations of eucalypts specifically for koala fodder which are managed by the Native Mammal Department at Melbourne Zoo. The trees are not left to grow to their optimum height, as smaller trees produce excellent foliage and are far easier to harvest. Browse material is kept in cool rooms until it is fed to the animals.

 

Inevitably the browse trees die and need replacing. Over three days in June this year, a team of volunteers from Friends of the Zoos planted and protected over a thousand new seedlings, mostly red, swamp and blue gum. Koalas eat about 500 grams of leaves a day, which provide them with enough food and moisture; they rarely drink water. All koalas spend at least 19 to 20 hours of the day resting or sleeping, which significantly reduces their metabolic requirements. With so little time spent in active pursuits, these wonderful, unique Australians would have no idea how time-consuming and labour-intensive it is to provide their nourishment.

 

Abridged from Fran Pfeiffer in Zoo News Vol. 23, No. 3 (September 2003)

 

Oregon Zoo, Portland, Oregon, U.S.A.

 

In November, a dozen (6.6) California condors arrived at the zoo's new breeding facility for the species, a project that has been two years in the planning. Some of the 12 birds at the site – one of just four in the world – are established breeding pairs, others will be paired at the zoo, and some are younger condors that may not breed for as long as three years. Eventually, the facility will house 16 breeding pairs and could produce about 30 chicks a year. This is the most ambitious conservation project the zoo has undertaken, and will increase chances that the species can be revived. Currently, there are 135 condors living in captivity and 84 flying free.

 

Planners from the zoo and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service had hoped to complete the project a year ago, but with money hard to come by, it was delayed. The zoo has raised about $1.35 million of the $3 million needed to build the off-exhibit breeding facility and pre-release flight pen, an on-site veterinary clinic and a condor exhibit at the zoo. Tony Vecchio, the zoo's director, says raising the remaining money will be tough, but he's confident it will come.

 

Zoo officials don't know where condors raised in Oregon might end up. Those decisions will be made by the California Condor Recovery Program, a collaborative effort involving public agencies and private organizations and citizens. The project's immediate goal is to establish a captive population of 150 birds as well as wild populations in California, Arizona and Baja California, Mexico. However, Vecchio and others involved in the project hope that some day Oregon may be included on that list. `Biologically it makes sense,' says Vecchio. `This is part of their range . . . but the recovery team wants us to prove ourselves first.'

 

Abridged and adapted from Seattle Times (7 November 2003)

 

Riverbanks Zoological Park, Columbia, South Carolina, U.S.A.

 

Births and hatchings during the period April to September 2003 were as follows: 2 Siberian tiger, 4 wart hog, 1 parma wallaby, 2 Bali mynah, 1 blue-winged leafbird, 2 curl-crested aracari, 3 king penguin, 1 spectacled owl, 3 superb starling, 2 toco toucan, 5 troupial, 13 African spurred tortoise, 1 bog turtle, 2 loggerhead sea turtle, 1 pancake tortoise, 1 radiated tortoise, 4 flat leaf-tailed gecko, 5 giant leaf-tailed gecko, 2 Henkel's leaf-tailed gecko, 3 lined leaf-tailed gecko, 2 spiny leaf-tailed gecko, 3 yellow-throated gecko, 10 eastern diamondback rattlesnake, 5 eyelash palm pit viper, 1 green tree python.

 

The following were acquired during the same period: 1 acouchi, 1 De Brazza's monkey, 1 Diana monkey, 1 golden lion tamarin, 1 parma wallaby, 1 pygmy marmoset, 1 blue-winged leafbird, 1 boat-billed heron, 1 fairy bluebird, 1 Indian pygmy goose, 1 magnificent ground pigeon, 1 robin chat, 1 Burmese black tortoise, 3 Chinese broad-headed turtle, 2 loggerhead turtle, 1 eastern coral snake, 2 king cobra, 4 ocellated mountain viper.

 

Susan Reno, Registrar

 

San Antonio Zoo, Texas, U.S.A.

 

Named after Sir Frederick John Jackson, a naturalist and English diplomat, Jackson's hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus jacksoni) is a subspecies whose natural range extends from western Kenya to Uganda. The wild population is estimated to be fewer than 4,000. Surviving on low-quality grasses, they are social animals that live in organized herds of up to 300 animals. Because hartebeests are one of the most sedentary or inactive antelopes, they are easy prey for poachers, and are also threatened by loss of habitat.

 

With the wild population decreasing, San Antonio Zoo is taking an active role in working with this rare species. We received our first breeding pair in 1966 and celebrated a birth in 1968. Since that time, 44 hartebeest calves have been successfully born here, including two this summer.

 

Currently, San Antonio, St. Catherine's Wildlife Survival Center (an affiliate of the Bronx Zoo) and Peace River Refuge in Florida are the only North American facilities working to increase hartebeest numbers and improve captive husbandry. By sharing animals and breeding insights, these organizations have been instrumental in increasing the captive herd of Jackson's hartebeest. Currently, San Antonio Zoo is home to 3.7 animals. Because of their fractious or skittish nature and the desire not to risk their health, they are all housed on the zoo's off-exhibit area `Breeding Hill'. Today, breeding herds of Jackson's hartebeest, topi, lesser kudu and Nile lechwe all reside on the three-acre [1.2-ha] Breeding Hill, and besides the hartebeests, three topi calves have also been born and reared there this season.

 

Abridged from Janet Valadez in Wild Times (October 2003)

 

San Diego Zoo, California, U.S.A.

 

The zoo's long history with Galápagos tortoises (Geochelone nigra) began in 1928, when a large group arrived here to establish a captive-breeding program. They were brought by Dr Charles H. Townsend of the New York Zoological Society, who went to the islands to collect as many tortoises as possible in an effort to save the species from extinction. Expeditions to the Galápagos were the predominant way of acquiring tortoises at the time, and this era was dubbed the `rescue phase'. On the islands, the tortoises were under pressure from human consumption, the oil trade, and introduced feral predators. Generation after generation, these reptiles had survived other pressures such as essential freshwater sources drying up and fires destroying already limited vegetation. But introduced predators were proving to be the final straw that was about to break the tortoises' backs.

 

San Diego Zoo housed the treasures from the 1928 Townsend Expedition, as did eight other zoological institutions in the United States and around the world. Upon their arrival, all the tortoises were young and weighed between 11 and 30 pounds [5–13.5 kg]. Based upon the reproduction data we have now, these tortoises were immature, and it would be years before they reached breeding size. Yet not all tortoises that arrived at the zoo in the early years were as small as the inaugural group. In 1933, Captain Fred Lewis brought an adult tortoise to the zoo, which was from southern Isabela Island and weighed a respectable 475 pounds [215 kg]. Named Speed at the time, he is still at the zoo and now goes by the name Old Number 5.

 

San Diego Zoo was not the first institution to report success in breeding Galápagos tortoises, but 30 years after their arrival we were the fourth to report a successful hatch. The late Charles Shaw, curator of reptiles at the time, reported that after an eight-month incubation period, five tortoises hatched on 21 October 1958. This was just the beginning of one of the most successful captive-reproduction programs for Galápagos tortoises in zoos worldwide. Since 1958, the zoo has had 94 successful hatchings, including the most recent in September 2001.

 

The history of San Diego's Galápagos tortoises features many interesting stories, but few are as endearing as the story of a special tortoise named Diego. He began his now legendary life on Hood Island, also known as Isla Española, sometime in the early 1900s. Small and low-lying, Española's position in the group was dangerous for the island's giant residents. Whalers traveling around Cape Horn encountered it before any other island, making it a desirable port, and the tortoises there were commonly collected during the mid-1800s. In fact, citing overcollection of the tortoises and a feral goat population that had removed valuable vegetation, this subspecies (G. n. hoodensis) was at one time reported as extinct. While this was later corrected, the Española tortoise was certainly very rare. Diego arrived at the zoo in the early 1930s, and for the next 40-odd years he made his home here. Meanwhile, it was decided that if this subspecies was to be saved, the surviving population – two males and 12 females – needed to be relocated to the Charles Darwin Research Station (CDRS). It wasn't until the mid-1970s that scientists realized how Diego could play a role in the conservation of his own kind. Dr Tom Fritts, President of CDRS, identified him as an Española tortoise while conducting a study on shell morphology. As a result, plans were made for Diego to make his grand homecoming in 1977, so that all of the known Española tortoises were reunited. The subspecies is now well on its way to recovery. Although the population had its first successful hatching at the CDRS six years before Diego's return, he played a key role. By competing with the other two males, he supplied the necessary stimulation to produce more than 1,000 hatchlings! During the past three decades, some 1,000 tortoises have been reintroduced to a goat-free and vegetation-rich Isla Española.

 

There are currently 20 Galápagos tortoises at the zoo, including representatives from six locations in the archipelago. All but two of the subspecies are isolated populations on different islands or volcanoes, separated by geographic barriers of lava and water. The location best represented in our herd, with 4.2 animals, is Santa Cruz (formerly Indefatigable) Island, one of the largest in the group and to the CDRS. The tortoise reserve on this island contains 2,000 to 3,000 Santa Cruz Island tortoises (G. n. nigrita). This subspecies is extremely large – males can weigh 600 pounds [270 kg] – and is known for its domed carapace.

 

Another part of our herd is made up of the subspecies native to three volcanoes on the northern half of Isabela Island. All three volcanoes have genetically distinct tortoise populations, and all three subspecies are found at the zoo. Volcan Alcedo is one of these volcanoes, and in their homeland Volcan Alcedo tortoises (G. n. vandenburghi) have the largest present-day population – 3,000 to 5,000. The Volcan Alcedo tortoise is similar in size and shape to the Santa Cruz tortoise; San Diego has two males and a female. Volcan Wolf is the northernmost volcano on Isabela, and at more than 5,000 feet [1,670 m], it is the highest point in the archipelago. There are several known tortoise populations located around this volcano. San Diego has 1.1 from an area known as Piedras Blancas. This subspecies, G. n. becki, is known for its `intermediate' shell shape, a term used to describe a combination of `domed' and `saddlebacked' forms. The last volcano in the northern half of Isabela Island is Volcan Darwin; because of easy accessibility, the tortoise subspecies on this volcano was profoundly victimized by passing ships. San Diego has 1.1 Volcan Darwin tortoises (G. n. microphyes), also characterized by its intermediate shell shape. Representing the southern half of Isabela Island is the Volcan Cerro Azul tortoise (G. n. vicina), which is large and has a domed shell. Old Number 5, one of our most famous and certainly our biggest tortoise, is one of our two male representatives of this subspecies. A majority of the tortoises collected during the Townsend Expedition were Volcan Cerro Azul tortoises.

 

The sixth and final subspecies at the zoo is the James Island, or Santiago Island, tortoise (G. n. darwini). The island itself is large but may contain a population of only 500 tortoises. Santiago Island tortoises are being bred at the CDRS and released back onto their native island, thus boosting the small wild population. The story in zoos is less hopeful: we have the only two Santiago Island tortoises in the United States, but they are both males. Unless more females are brought into the country, which is unlikely, the captive population of this subspecies will not increase.

 

There are many ways in which San Diego and other U.S. zoos are managing giant tortoises to ensure that they will be around to enjoy for a long time to come. Modern technologies have helped us identify the total captive population and the population still surviving in the wild. This will make it possible to have a `dating game' of sorts, matching tortoises for breeding. At San Diego, we hope to use this new data with our population and make changes accordingly, because a herd of six subspecies could prove to be too large to manage properly. Currently plans are being made to better exhibit the tortoises and focus on breeding three separate subspecies. So we might need to say goodbye to a few of our tortoises so that they can join new breeding groups at other zoos, while at the same time bringing in some new individuals to assist our own breeding efforts.

 

Abridged from Thomas C. Owens in Zoonooz Vol. 76, No. 10 (October 2003)

 

Wilhelma Zoo, Stuttgart, Germany

 

The great hornbill (Buceros bicornis) has always been an extremely popular exhibit bird in European collections. But in marked contrast to the large number of holders, breeding successes have been achieved in only a few institutions to date (Alphen aan den Rijn, El Retiro Malaga, Rostock and Walsrode). In 2003 Wilhelma was able to join the small circle of breeders.

 

For many years, a pair of great hornbills has been housed in a combined indoor/outdoor compartment of our large bird aviary. Dimensions are 400 ´ 600 ´ 250 cm (indoors) and 550 ´ 700 ´ 400 cm (outdoors). The outdoor aviary is heavily planted, while the indoor aviary is furnished with wooden perches and a nest-box of 80 ´ 72 ´ 90 cm with a 23-cm entrance hole on the front side. The female arrived from a small collection near Stuttgart 20 years ago and is of unknown age and origin. She was paired with a wild-caught male who arrived via Berlin Zoo in 1992. She was sealed in the nest and produced infertile clutches every year from 1994 on. Various environmental factors such as light–dark cycle, light intensity, temperature, diet, type and diameter of perches, etc., were altered but did not improve reproductive success, and the male was finally exchanged for another wild-caught male kept at Vogelpark Detmold-Heiligenkirchen since 1973. The transfers were carried out in the framework of the EEP in August 2002.

 

The female and her new partner got along with each other extremely well from the day they were introduced. The female entered the nest-box just a few months later, on 22 January 2003, and was sealed in. She laid two eggs, and on 10 March our keepers heard the begging calls of two newly hatched chicks. The chicks were raised on a diet consisting mainly of pinky rats and mice, giant mealworms, locusts and crickets. No complications occurred and the chicks fledged within one hour of each other on the afternoon of 22 May.

 

Despite this long-awaited and encouraging success, many more efforts are necessary to establish a self-sustaining EEP population of this charismatic bird.

 

Gunther Schleussner in EAZA News No. 44 (October–December 2003)

 

News in brief

 

A Bolivian gray titi monkey (Callicebus donacophilus) was born on 28 March at Dallas Zoo, Texas, U.S.A.. The youngster is being parent-raised on exhibit. This is the 13th titi birth at the zoo, and the first offspring for the mother, who arrived from Sunset Zoo, Kansas, in 2002; the father has been in Dallas since 1988. There are fewer than 40 Bolivian titi monkeys in the United States, the only country outside of South America where the species is exhibited.

 

Communiqué (American Zoo and Aquarium Association), October 2003

 

                               *   *   *   *   *

The oldest Indian rhino at Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde died on 1 October 2003 at the age of 36 years. This rhino, a female called Kumari, arrived in Berlin from Nepal on 1 August 1967 as a baby (approximately three months old) via the animal dealer G. Munro. Kumari gave birth twice: a stillborn male in 1985 and a bull calf on 1 January 1990 – her son Belur, now the Tierpark's breeding male. [See: Blaszkiewitz, B. (1997): Rhinos in Berlin. IZN 44 (7), 403–406.]

 

Dr Bernhard Blaszkiewitz

                               *   *   *   *   *

Cincinnati Zoo, Ohio, U.S.A., is pleased to announce the hatching of a king penguin on 28 July. This is thought to be the first time a king penguin has been produced in captivity without the use of artificial incubation. The pair of adult birds incubated the egg for 54 days and provided the initial care for the chick.

                               *   *   *   *   *

A nine-strong troop of hamadryas baboons have joined four white rhinos and six giraffes in the African paddock at South Lakes Wild Animal Park, Dalton-in-Furness, U.K. It is thought to be the first time this combination of species has been placed in a mixed exhibit in any zoo.

 

                               *   *   *   *   *

Two (1.1) red panda cubs were born at Knoxville Zoo, Tennessee, U.S.A., on 7 July. This brings to 80 the number of births at the zoo since 1978, making it the most successful breeding institution for this species in North America, and the second most successful in the world. The zoo offers annual workshops designed to train keepers in the optimal care of the species with regard to husbandry, diet, medical care, enrichment, training and cubbing.

 

Communiqué (American Zoo and Aquarium Association), October 2003

 

                                   *   *   *

 

Index to Contributors, International Zoo News Volume 50 (2003)

 

Abelló, M.T., see Velasco, M.

Adams, John, 1, 61–62

Azúa, John, 7, 434

Bahir, Mohommed, 5, 304

Baier, Jeff, see Kenny, David E.

Balzer, Jörg, see Hammer, Sven

Banks, Chris, 2, 101–102; 4, 251–252

Bar-David, Shirli, see Handrus, Elliot

Barnes, Karen, see Mehrdadfar, Farshid

Ben-David, Na'ama Y., 7, 408–417

Bicca-Marques, Júlio César, see Gomes, Daniela Fichtner

Bidaux, Stéphanie, see Delord, Françoise

Bilbaut, Marianne, 3, 182–183

Bircher, Sue, 5, 309–310

Blaszkiewitz, Bernhard, 1, 64; 4, 255; 8, 509–510

Bolton, Duncan, 4, 247–248

Bolton, Duncan, & Carlsen, Frands, 4, 233–234

Boyen, Elke, see King, Tony

Brandstätter, Frank, 7, 418–422

Britt, Adam, Welch, Charlie, & Katz, Andrea, 1, 47–48

Brueggen, John, 4, 234–235

Bruins, Eugene, 4, 246

Carlsen, Frands, see Bolton, Duncan

Carroll, J. Bryan, Gage, Melanie, Hurst, Louise, & Maddison, Neil, 1, 21–26

Casavant, Kelly, see Mehrdadfar, Farshid

Challis, Mark, 4, 246–247; 8, 498–499

Chitty, John, 7, 444

Chuven, Justin, see Mehrdadfar, Farshid

Cimino, Ray, 5, 306–308

Corder, John, 5, 306

Craig, Jamie, & Reed, Clare, 1, 16–20

Creak, Miranda, 7, 446–447

Cuadrado, Mariano, 2, 121

da Cunha, Margarida Barão, Ruivo, Eric Bairrão, & Matias, Sónia, 4, 250–251

Damen, Marc, 1, 53–55

de Azevedo, Cristiano Schetini, Lima, Michele Badaró, Faggioli, Ângela Bernadete, & Menegazzi, Cristiane Speziali, 1, 27–37

de Wit, Pierre, 1, 58–59

Delord, Françoise, & Bidaux, Stéphanie, 1, 57–58

Dematteo, Karen, 3, 183–184

Diaz, Maria Pilar, 4, 231

Dunce, Ilze, 1, 62–63

Durrant, Barbara S., see Lindburg, Donald G.

Edmonds, Jane, 1, 43; 4, 247

Edwards, John, 1, 38

Ellerton, Nick, 8, 503

Ellis, Malcolm, 1, 45

Faggioli, Ângela Bernadete, see de Azevedo, Cristiano Schetini

Fainstein, Vladimir, & Miljutina, Tatjana, 2, 123–124

Fejk, Petr, 2, 122–123

Fiby, Monika, 8, 502

Freiheit, Clayton F., 2, 119–120

Furnweger, Karen, 3, 178

Gage, Melanie, see Carroll, J. Bryan

Gamba, Marco, Giacoma, Cristina, & Zaborra, Cesare Avesani, 6, 376

Gardiner, Linda, 3, 174–175

Gerlach, Justin, 1, 45–46

Gerritsen, Marga, 1, 62

Giacoma, Cristina, see Gamba, Marco

Gilbert, Tania, see Woodfine, Tim

Gippoliti, Spartaco, 2, 102, 112–114

Gomes, Daniela Fichtner, & Bicca-Marques, Júlio César, 8, 487–488

Gould, Nicholas, 1, 2–3; 2, 70–71, 107; 3, 37, 171–173, 186; 4, 198, 227–228; 5, 264, 298–301; 6, 351–352; 7, 392–394; 8, 493–494

Guldenschuh, Gerry, 7, 438–441

Haeffner, Rick, 7, 435

Hammer, Sven, Jensen, Simon, Balzer, Jörg, & Sandow, Dieter, 3, 156–159; see also Jensen, Simon Bruslund

Handrus, Elliot, Saltz, David, & Bar-David, Shirli, 3, 142–146

Hannocks, Chris, 2, 122

Hayes, Tracey, 7, 442–443

Heckel, Jens-Ove, see Lernould, Jean-Marc

Hilsberg, Sabine, 6, 369–370

Hogg, Carolyn, 7, 447

Holst, Bengt, 8, 497

Holtorf, Cornelius, & Van Reybrouck, David, 4, 207–215

Honan, Patrick, 5, 310

Hurst, Louise, see Carroll, J. Bryan

Irvine, Georgeanne, 3, 184–185

Janecek, Josef, 8, 503–504

Jensen, Simon Bruslund, & Hammer, Catrin, 5, 305–306; see also Hammer, Sven

Jensen, Simon Bruslund, & Hammer, Sven, 5, 276–279

Johann, Achim, 2, 114–116; 6, 360–362

Jones, Marvin L., 2, 105

Jørgensen, Bent, 8, 458

Katz, Andrea, see Britt, Adam

Kawata, Ken, 5, 262, 265–275

Keeling, C.H., 1, 38–39; 3, 170

Kenny, David E., Baier, Jeff, & Knightly, Felicia, 7, 435–436

King, Cathy, 4, 253–254

King, Tony, Boyen, Elke, & Muilerman, Sander, 5, 288–297

Kisling, Vernon, 6, 355; 7, 426; 8, 492–493

Klenova, Anna V., see Volodin, Ilya A.

Knightly, Felicia, see Kenny, David E.

Knowles, John, 6, 374–375

Lange, Jürgen, 7, 390–392

Leeds, Dale, 7, 433–434

Lernould, Jean-Marc, Heckel, Jens-Ove, & Wirth, Roland, 6, 357–358

Lima, Michele Badaró, see de Azevedo, Cristiano Schetini

Lindburg, Donald G., Durrant, Barbara S., Penny, Carmi, & McKeever, Michael, 5, 312–314

Lukas, Kristen E., see McCarthy, Sean T.

McCaffree, Ken, see Mehrdadfar, Farshid

McCarthy, Sean T., Lukas, Kristen E., Sironen, Alan L., & Winkler, David, 7, 396–406

McKeever, Michael, see Lindburg, Donald G.

Maddison, Neil, see Carroll, J. Bryan

Marcordes, Bernd, see Rinke, Dieter

Martin, Esmond, see Vigne, Lucy

Maschka, Rhonda, 6, 377–378

Matias, Sónia, see da Cunha, Margarida Barão

Menegazzi, Cristiane Speziali, see de Azevedo, Cristiano Schetini

Mehrdadfar, Farshid, Chuven, Justin, Casavant, Kelly, & Barnes, Karen, 8, 462–466

Mehrdadfar, Farshid, Shuler, Joe, & McCaffree, Ken, 4, 216–221

Miljutina, Tatjana, see Fainstein, Vladimir

Miller, Brian J., see Reading, Richard P.

Miller, R. Eric, & Parker, Patricia, 1, 46–47

Muilerman, Sander, see King, Tony

Müller, Martina, see Rinke, Dieter

Nagase, Ken, 3, 182

Nakazawa, A., see Yamaguchi, K.

Namaisawa, H., see Yamaguchi, K.

Nikitina, Alla, see Orlov, Konstantin

O'Lear, Matt, 5, 311–312

Orlov, Konstantin, & Nikitina, Alla, 6, 372–373

Otsuka, K., see Yamaguchi, K.

Owen, Raymond, 4, 225–226

Owens, Thomas C., 8, 507–509

Parker, Patricia, see Miller, R. Eric

Pé, Frank, 5, 280–286

Penny, Carmi, see Lindburg, Donald G.

Pfeiffer, Fran, 8, 505

Pfistermüller, Regina, 6, 378–379

Phillips, John A., 8, 496–497

Pratalongo, Fernando Angulo, 5, 302

Ray, John, 4, 255

Reading, Richard P., & Miller, Brian J., 7, 436–437

Reed, Clare, see Craig, Jamie

Rees, Paul A., 2, 86–90; 4, 200–206

Reichenbach, Herman, 1, 40–41; 2, 72–85; 4, 228–229, 241–243; 6, 352–354; 8, 489–491, 495

Reinschmidt, Matthias, 1, 59–60; 2, 121–122; 3, 178–179; 4, 250; 5, 308–309; 6, 373–374; 7, 443–444; 8, 504–505

Reno, Susan, 3, 183; 4, 253; 8, 506

Rietkerk, Frank, 6, 367

Rinke, Dieter, 2, 125

Rinke, Dieter, Müller, Martina, & Marcordes, Bernd, 4, 243–245

Robstad, Gunn Holen, 6, 371–372

Romano, Guillaume, & Vermeer, Jan, 3, 138–141

Rookmaaker, Kees, 1, 50

Ruivo, Eric Bairrão, see da Cunha, Margarida Barão

Sagawa, Y., see Yamaguchi, K.

St John, Karen, 6, 368

Saltz, David, see Handrus, Elliot

Salzberg, Allen, 2, 90

Sandow, Dieter, see Hammer, Sven

Schleussner, Gunther, 8, 509

Schmidt, Harald, 3, 183

Schwammer, Harald M., see Stoeger-Horwath, Angela S.

Shimizu, Tei, 1, 50

Shuler, Joe, see Mehrdadfar, Farshid

Sironen, Alan L., see McCarthy, Sean T.

Stoeger-Horwath, Angela S., & Schwammer, Harald M., 6, 330–336; 8, 468–474

Strachan, Alan, 8, 499–501

Strehlow, Harro, 7, 428–433

Sturrock, Tracy, 6, 369; 7, 442

Sweeney, Roger, 1, 43–45; 4, 232

Tan, Chia, 4, 230–231

Tan, Vincent, 6, 379–381

Terkel, Amelia, 1, 64

Tofts, Russell, 5, 297

Tropeano, Anthony, 4, 248

Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale, 2, 97–100

Tuson, John, 1, 4–14; 2, 92–96, 105–107; 3, 148–155; 4, 222–224, 225; 6, 326–328; 8, 475–480

Underwood, Geoff, 5, 314

Valadez, Janet, 8, 506–507

van Bruggen, A.C., 2, 103–105; 6, 347–350, 355–356; 7, 427; 8, 481–486, 492

van Dam, Gerard, 8, 459–460

van den Broek, Peggy, see Veenhuizen, Rolf

van der Zanden, Rogier, see van Herk, Robert

van Herk, Robert, and van der Zanden, Rogier, 1, 57

Van Reybrouck, David, see Holtorf, Cornelius

van Vliet, Erik, 7, 423–425

Veenhuizen, Rolf, & van den Broek, Peggy, 3, 175–176

Velasco, M., & Abelló, M.T., 6, 343–346

Vercammen, Paul, 7, 426

Vermeer, Jan, see Romano, Guillaume

Vigne, Lucy, & Martin, Esmond, 6, 338–342

Visser, Gerard, 2, 123

Volodin, Ilya A., Volodina, Elena V., & Klenova, Anna V., 3, 160–167

Volodina, Elena V., see Volodin, Ilya A.

Walker, Sally, 3, 134–137

Ward, Cathy, 3, 180–181

Weigl, Richard, 1, 39

Welch, Charlie, see Britt, Adam

Whitbread, Sam, 4, 225

Wilkinson, Roger, 6, 368–369

Winkler, David, see McCarthy, Sean T.

Wirth, Roland, see Lernould, Jean-Marc

Woodfine, Tim, & Gilbert, Tania, 6, 358–359

Wortman, John, 7, 433

Yamaguchi, K., Nakazawa, A., Namaisawa, H., Sagawa, Y., & Otsuka, K., 5, 315

Yokota, Osamu, 2, 124–125

Zaborra, Cesare Avesani, see Gamba, Marco

Zingg, Robert, 7, 448

Zobrist, Ann, 4, 248–249

Zucconi, Dave, 2, 102

 

Index to Books Reviewed, International Zoo News Volume 50 (2003)

 

Altmann, Jeanne: Baboon Mothers and Infants. 2, 107.

Cocks, Leif: Orangutans and their Battle for Survival. 3, 171.

Coops, T.: Het Bos van Blaauw. Gooilust en het Corversbos. Biografie van een 's-Gravelandse Buitenplaats. 6, 355–356.

Daszkiewicz, Piotr, & Aikhenbaum, Jean: Aurochs, le Retour . . . d'une Supercherie Nazie. 6, 352–354.

Fisher, Clemency Thorne (ed.): A Passion for Natural History: the Life and Legacy of the 13th Earl of Derby. 3, 171–173.

Gray, Randall L.: Desert Lizards: Captive Husbandry and Propagation. 5, 301.

Hahn, Daniel: The Tower Menagerie. 5, 298–299.

Jahn, Ilse, & Schmitt, Michael: Darwin & Co. – eine Geschichte der Biologie in Portraits. 1, 40–41.

Jones, Marvin L. (ed. Mark Rosenthal and Ken Kawata): A Conversation with Marvin Jones. 5, 299–301.

Kawata, Ken: New York's Biggest Little Zoo: a History of the Staten Island Zoo. 6, 355.

Keeling, C.H.: Skyscrapers and Sealions. 4, 228–229.

Kiefer, M.: Chasing the Panda: How an Unlikely Pair of Adventurers Won the Race to Capture the Mythical `White Bear'. 7, 427.

Olney, P.J.S., Fisken, Fiona A., & Morris, Catherine (eds.): International Zoo Yearbook 38. 6, 351–352.

Larson, Peggy P.: Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum, A Scrapbook. 2, 105.

Martel, Yann: Life of Pi. 2, 105–107.

Rieck, Werner, Hallmann, Gerhard, & Bischoff, Wolfgang: Die Geschichte der Herpetologie und Terrarienkunde im deutschsprachigen Raum. 1, 40–41.

Scheier, Joan: The Central Park Zoo. 4, 228–229.

Sunquist, Mel & Fiona: Wild Cats of the World. 4, 227–228.

Sunquist, Fiona & Mel: Tiger Moon: Tracking the Great Cats in Nepal. 4, 227.

Weniger, Gerd-Christian (ed.): Archäologie und Biologie des Auerochsen/Archaeology and Biology of the Aurochs. 6, 352–354.

Wilson, V.J.: Duikers of Africa: Masters of the African Forest Floor. 2, 103–105.

Wrigley, Robert E.: Polar Bear Encounters at Churchill. 3, 173.

Young, Peter: Tortoise. 8, 493–494.

 

Subject Index, International Zoo News Volume 50 (2003)

 

[Primary references to species and genera are under scientific names, with cross-references from common English names. The name of a single species is normally given in the singular, even where the reference is to a number of individuals of that species: thus, e.g., `Cercopithecus neglectus, mixed exhibit with gorilla, Melbourne Zoo' does not imply that the exhibit contains only a single gorilla; but `Hornbills, captive breeding' will refer to an item about more than one species of hornbill. The terms `Zoological Gardens' and `Zoological Park', and their equivalents in other languages, are abbreviated to `Zoo', except in cases where confusion might result.]

 

Aceros undulatus, breeding, Central Florida Zoological Park, 8, 499

Acinonyx jubatus,

behavioural and reproductive study, White Oak Conservation Center, 3, 195–196

blood transfusion, National Zoo, South Africa, 4, 253

breeding and conservation, De Wildt Cheetah and Wildlife Trust, 8, 499–501

breeding, Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife, 4, 247

breeding by artificial insemination, Columbus Zoo, 7, 441–442

cubs, chronobiological study, Schönbrunn Zoo, 6, 330–336

cubs, vocalization study, Schönbrunn Zoo, 8, 468–474

Adelaide Zoo, South Australia, annual report 2001/2002, 4, 239–241

Ailuropoda melanoleuca,

computer software for mate selection, China, 3, 187

early collectors from wild, book review, 7, 427

mating, San Diego Zoo, 5, 312–314

reproductive research, China, 1, 67

Schönbrunn Zoo, 6, 378–379

training, Zoo Atlanta, 7, 449–450

Ailurus fulgens, breeding, Knoxville Zoo, Tennessee, U.S.A., 8, 510

Al Wabra Wildlife Conservation, Qatar,

breeding, birds of paradise, 5, 276–279

breeding, flame bowerbird, 5, 305

breeding, sand cat, 5, 305–306

DNA sexing, birds of paradise and bowerbirds, 3, 156–159

Somali wild ass, 5, 305

Alcelaphus buselaphus jacksoni, breeding, San Antonio Zoo, 8, 506–507

Alces alces, wasting syndrome complex, 1, 65

Alouatta caraya, breeding (including twins), Apenheul Primate Park, 6, 367

Alpenzoo, Innsbruck, Austria, new waldrapp aviary, 2, 117–118

Amazon, St Vincent, see A. guildingii

Amazon World, Isle of Wight, U.K., visitor's report, 4, 223–224

Amazona guildingii, conservation, in and ex situ, St Vincent and Barbados, 1, 43–45; 4, 232

Amblonyx cinereus, new exhibit, Edinburgh Zoo, 8, 502

Amersfoort Zoo, the Netherlands, walk-through nocturnal exhibit, 7, 423–425

Ammotragus lervia, behavioural study, 2, 127

Amphibians, management, European zoos, 1, 49

Amsterdam Zoo (Artis), the Netherlands,

aquarium, history, 8, 481–486

breeding, Japanese giant salamander, 8, 483–484

herring, 8, 483

parthenogenesis, Burmese python, 4, 246

Andrias japonicus, breeding, Amsterdam Zoo, 8, 483–484

Anole, green, see Anolis carolinensis

Anolis carolinensis, nutrient composition, 1, 65–66

Antelope, sable, see Hippotragus niger

Antelopes,

aggression control, 1, 68

fever study, Lichtenburg Game Breeding Centre, 4, 235

Sahelo-Saharan, conservation, 6, 358–359

Anthracoceros a. albirostris, breeding, Vogelpark Heppenheim, 4, 255

Antwerp Zoo, Belgium, book review, 8, 492

Aoudad, see Ammotragus lervia

Apenheul Primate Park, the Netherlands,

breeding (including twins), black howler monkey, 6, 367

tool use, bonobo, 2, 128

Apistogramma spp., research in aquaria, 5, 317

Aptenodytes patagonicus,

breeding without artificial incubation, Cincinnati Zoo, 8, 510

in situ conservation in Falkland Islands, Rotterdam Zoo, 4, 253–254

Aquarium of Western Australia, Sorrento, Western Australia, visitor's report, 2, 80–81

Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus, acoustic research, Taronga Zoo, 7, 447

Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum, Tucson, Arizona, U.S.A., book review, 2, 105

Art and zoos, 5, 264; 7, 426

Artificial insemination,

koala, Lone Pine Koala Sanctuary, 6, 385

 Pacific white-sided dolphin, John G. Shedd Aquarium, 4, 249–250

red-crowned crane, Fort Worth Zoo, 5, 308

white rhino, Berlin Institute for Zoo and Wild Animal Research, 4, 234

Ass, Somali wild, see Equus africanus somalicus

Atelopus spp., zoo breeding programmes, 5, 317

Auckland Zoo, New Zealand,

annual report 2001–2002, 1, 51–53

enrichment, Asian elephant, 3, 174–175

twin birth and hand-rearing, siamang, 7, 438

Audubon Aquarium of the Americas, New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A., breeding, freshwater stingrays, 6, 367

Aurochs, see Bos primigenius

Avifauna Bird Park, Alphen aan den Rijn, the Netherlands, 1, 57

Avocet, see Recurvirostra avosetta

Aye-aye, see Daubentonia madagascariensis

 

Baboon, hamadryas, see Papio hamadryas

Baghdad Zoo, Iraq, 6, 367–368

Baltimore Zoo, Maryland, U.S.A.,

breeding, Indian flapshell turtle, 6, 368

financial cuts, 8, 498

Banham Zoo, U.K., sale of bricks to raise funds for Asian lion enclosure, 5, 316

Banteng, see Bos javanicus

Barcelona Zoo, Spain, mating, gorillas from different groups, 6, 343–346

Basel Zoo, Switzerland, new ecological and conservation-oriented African savanna exhibit, 7, 438–441

Bat, Livingstone's fruit, see Pteropus livingstonii

Bear, Amur brown, see U. arctos lasiotus; polar, see U. maritimus

Beauval Zoo, St Aignan sur Cher, France, tropical Australian exhibit, 1, 57–58

Beekse Bergen Safari Park, the Netherlands, spotted hyena, 3, 175–176

Beijing Zoo, China, visitor's report, 5, 283–286

Belfast Zoo, Northern Ireland, U.K.,

breeding, colobine monkeys, 8, 498–499

breeding, Malayan tapir, 4, 246–247

Belle Isle Aquarium, Detroit, Michigan, U.S.A., possible parthenogenesis, white-spotted bamboo shark, 1, 49–50

Belo Horizonte Zoo, Brazil, visitor behaviour, bird area, 1, 27–37

Berlin Institute for Zoo and Wild Animal Research, artificial insemination, white rhino, 4, 234

Berlin Zoo, Germany, annual report 2001–2002, 7, 428–433

Bird of paradise, red, see Paradisaea rubra

Birds,

breeding, Japanese passerines, Ueno Zoo, 5, 315

Galápagos, health monitoring programme, 1, 46–47

sexing methods, 3, 137, 156–167

visitor responses, Belo Horizonte Zoo, 1, 27–37

Birds of paradise,

breeding, Al Wabra Wildlife Conservation, 5, 276–279

DNA sexing, Al Wabra Wildlife Conservation, 3, 156–159

Bongo, see Tragelaphus eurycerus

Bonobo, see Pan paniscus

Bos javanicus, breeding by cloning, San Diego Center for Reproduction of Endangered Species, 3, 187

Bos primigenius, book review, 6, 352–354

Bowerbird, flame, see Sericulus aureus ardens

Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates,

breeding, Arabian leopard, 1, 43

breeding, cheetah, 4, 247

Brevard Zoo, Melbourne, Florida, U.S.A., classrooms, 3, 176–177

Bristol Zoo, U.K.,

albino African penguin, 4, 247–248

funding primate conservation, Cameroon, 1, 21–26

Broadbill, long-tailed, see Psarisomus dalhousiae

Bronx Zoo, New York, U.S.A., breeding, lesser adjutant stork, 7, 441

Brookfield Zoo, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A., behavioural study, Chinese crocodile lizard, 3, 192–193

Bubo ascalaphus, sent from Wadi Al Safa Wildlife Centre to World Owl Trust, 5, 315

Buceros bicornis,

breeding, Wilhelma Zoo, 8, 509

reproductive assessment by fecal hormone analysis, 4, 257

Buceros rhinoceros, artificial rainfall and nest activity, Cincinnati Zoo, 7, 453

Bucorvus leadbeateri, hand-rearing and release, National Zoo, South Africa, 3, 186

Budorcas taxicolor bedfordi, Liberec Zoo, 8, 503

Burgers' Zoo, Arnhem, the Netherlands, annual report 2002, 1, 53–55

Bustard breeding programme, computerized record system, 6, 382

Butterflies, swallowtail, see Papilio spp.

 

Caiman, brown, see Caiman crocodilus fuscus

Caiman crocodilus fuscus, seasonal reproductive activity, 4, 258

Callicebus donacophilus, breeding, Dallas Zoo, 8, 509

Callithrix jacchus, pairing unfamiliar females, 6, 386

Callitrichids, environmental enrichment, Drusillas Zoo, 1, 16–20

Calvin Nicholls Wildlife Complex, Kingstown, St Vincent, St Vincent amazon parrot, 1, 43–45; 4, 232

Cameroon, primate conservation funded by Bristol Zoo, 1, 21–26

Canis lupus,

behaviour and welfare in zoos, 3, 190–191

behavioural study, Salzburg Zoo, 4, 259

Canis rufus,

faecal hormone analysis, Point Defiance Zoo, 7, 446

fostering into wild, North Carolina Zoo, 3, 181–182

Cat, jungle, see Felis chaus; sand, see Felis margarita

Central Florida Zoological Park, Lake Monroe, Florida, U.S.A., breeding, wreathed hornbill, 8, 499

Central Park Zoo, New York, U.S.A., book reviews, 4, 228–229

Cepphus columba, breeding, Oregon Coast Aquarium, 7, 445–446

Ceratotherium simum,

artificial insemination research, Berlin Institute for Zoo and Wild Animal Research, 4, 234

import and breeding, Western Plains Zoo, 7, 447–448

mixed exhibit with hamadryas baboon and giraffe, South Lakes Wild Animal Park, 8, 510

Monarto Zoo, 2, 122

social structure and reproduction, Ramat-Gan Zoological Center, 2, 130–131

Cervus alfredi, European zoo population, 6, 357–358

Chameleon, panther, see Furcifer pardalis

Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus, eggs rescued and hatched, Monterey Bay Aquarium, 7, 444–445

Charadrius melodus, rescue and hand-rearing, John Ball Zoo, 6, 371

Cheetah, see Acinonyx jubatus

Chelonia mydas, breeding, Sea World, San Diego, 7, 446

Chelonians,

conservation plan, 4, 226

in Japanese zoos, 5, 265–275

Chester Zoo, U.K.,

breeding, red bird of paradise, 6, 368–369

early sexual experience, Asian elephant, 4, 200–206

takes over sponsorship of IZN, 1, 2

visitor's report, 1, 4–14

Cheyenne Mountain Zoo, Colorado, U.S.A., breeding, mountain tapir, 7, 441

Children's zoos, 2, 97–100

Chiloscyllium plagiosum, possible parthenogenesis, Belle Isle Aquarium, 1, 49–50

Chiloscyllium punctatum, breeding, Leipzig Zoo, 5, 323

Chimpanzee, see Pan troglodytes; pygmy (bonobo), see Pan paniscus

Chiropotes satanas, seasonality of breeding, Brazilian zoos, 8, 487–488

Choloepus hoffmanni, breeding (1876), London Zoo, 1, 38

Cichlids, dwarf, see Apistogramma spp.

Cincinnati Zoo, Ohio, U.S.A.,

artificial rainfall and nest activity, rhinoceros hornbill, 7, 453

breeding without artificial incubation, king penguin, 8, 510

pregnancy, Sumatran rhino, 5, 306

Cleveland Metroparks Zoo, Ohio, U.S.A., behavioural study, fossa, 7, 396–406

Clupea harengus, Amsterdam Zoo, 8, 483

Cobra, Nubian, see Naja nubiae

Colchester Zoo, U.K., breeding by artificial insemination, African elephant, 4, 248

Cologne (Köln) Zoo, Germany,

diet, giraffe and okapi, 5, 319

food intake and preferences, douc langurs, 7, 449

management and contraception, hamadryas baboon, 1, 66–67

Columbus Zoo, Ohio, U.S.A.,

breeding by artificial insemination, cheetah, 7, 441–442

freshwater mussels, 2, 119

Condor, California, see Gymnogyps californianus

Copenhagen Zoo, Denmark, annual report 2002, 4, 236–239

Corney, Jack (1924–2003), obituary, 7, 392

Crane, red-crowned, see Grus japonensis

Cricket St Thomas Wildlife Park, Chard, U.K., Reeves's pheasant feathers donated to Beijing opera, 5, 306

Crocodile, Philippine, see Crocodylus mindorensis

Crocodilians, swallowing under water, St Augustine Alligator Farm, 4, 234–235

Crocodylus mindorensis,

breeding, Fort Worth Zoo, 6, 369

Melbourne Zoo, 4, 251–252

Crocuta crocuta, Beekse Bergen Safari Park, 3, 175–176

Cryptoprocta ferox, behavioural study, Cleveland Metroparks Zoo, 7, 396–406

Cuon alpinus, husbandry, San Diego Wild Animal Park, 8, 462–466

Cyanopica cyana, split into two species suggested, 5, 304

Cyclura nubila lewisi, breeding, Indianapolis Zoo, 3, 177

Cyprinodon longidorsalis, breeding, London Zoo, 7, 455

 

Dallas Zoo, Texas, U.S.A., breeding, Bolivian gray titi monkey, 8, 509

Dama dama mesopotamica, reintroduction, Israel, 3, 142–146

Daubentonia madagascariensis, breeding, Ueno Zoo, 7, 448

De Wildt Cheetah and Wildlife Trust, South Africa, breeding and conservation, cheetah, 8, 499–501

Deer, Mesopotamian (Persian) fallow, see Dama dama mesopotamica; Philippine spotted, see Cervus alfredi

Dendrocygna viduata, call-based sex identification, Moscow Zoo, 3, 160–167

Denver Zoo, Colorado, U.S.A.,

annual report 2002, 7, 433–437

breeding, African wild dog, 3, 187

breeding, Komodo dragon, 3, 186

mandrill, 2, 119–120

new Congo Basin exhibit, 2, 119–120

southern tamandua, 4, 248–249

Derby, 13th Earl of, book review, 3, 171–173

Dhole, see Cuon alpinus

Dicerorhinus sumatrensis, pregnancy, Cincinnati Zoo, 5, 306

Diceros bicornis, temporarily exhibited in England, 1877, 1, 50

Dipsochelys spp., breeding, Seychelles Giant Tortoise Conservation Project, 1, 45–46

Disney's Animal Kingdom, Lake Buena Vista, Florida, U.S.A., hand-rearing, long-tailed broadbill, 3, 177

Dog, African wild, see Lycaon pictus; bush, see Speothos venaticus

Dolphin, bottle-nosed, see Tursiops truncatus; Pacific white-sided, see Lagenorhynchus obliquidens

Dortmund Zoo, Germany, 7, 418–422

Dragon, bearded, see Pogona vitticeps; Komodo, see Varanus komodoensis

Drusillas Zoo, Alfriston, U.K., environmental enrichment, callitrichids, 1, 16–20

visitor services, 6, 327

Dryococelus australis, breeding, Melbourne Zoo, 5, 310; 7, 448

Duck, white-faced whistling, see Dendrocygna viduata

Duikers, book review, 2, 103–105

Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust (Jersey Zoo), Channel Islands,

new `flight tunnel', Livingstone's fruit bat, 8, 501

possible conservation programme, Cuba, 2, 120

visitor's report, 5, 306–308

 

Eagle, bald, see Haliaeetus leucocephalus

Edinburgh Zoo, U.K., new exhibit, oriental small-clawed otter, 8, 502

Elephant, African, see Loxodonta africana; Asian, see Elephas maximus

Elephants in zoos, welfare and breeding, 2, 70–71, 86–90; 3, 170; 3, 193

Elephas maximus,

breeding, Ramat-Gan Zoological Center, 1, 64

death of male at 57, Ringling Bros and Barnum & Bailey, 2, 126

death of male at 86 (?), Taipei Zoo, 3, 186

early sexual experience, Chester Zoo, 4, 200–206

enrichment, Auckland Zoo, 3, 174–175

new exhibit, Singapore Zoo, 6, 379–380

Emmen Zoo, the Netherlands, new exhibit, Humboldt penguin, 1, 58–59

Endangered Primate Rescue Center, Cuc Phuong National Park, Vietnam, food intake and preferences, douc langurs, 7, 449

Environmental enrichment, callitrichids, Drusillas Zoo, 1, 16–20

Equus africanus somalicus,

Al Wabra Wildlife Conservation, 5, 305

breeding, Liberec Zoo, 8, 503

Eriophora transmarinus, sent on space shuttle, Melbourne Zoo, 5, 310

 

Falculea palliata, breeding, Walsrode Bird Park, 2, 125

Felis chaus, breeding, Ostrava Zoo, 6, 388

Felis margarita,

breeding, Al Wabra Wildlife Conservation, 5, 305–306

Marwell Zoo, 1, 61–62

Ferret, black-footed, see Mustela nigripes

Flamingo Park Wildlife Encounter, Isle of Wight, U.K., visitor's report, 4, 223–224

Foot-and-mouth disease, implications for zoos, 3, 193–194

Fort Worth Zoo, Texas, U.S.A.,

breeding, Asian brown mountain tortoise, 7, 442

breeding by artificial insemination, red-crowned crane, 5, 308

breeding, Philippine crocodile, 6, 369

Fossa, see Cryptoprocta ferox

Fox, swift, see Vulpes velox

Frädrich, Hans (1937–2003), obituary, 7, 390–392

Frankfurt Zoo, Germany, infra-red thermography, 6, 369–370

Frog, Vietnamese (no English name), see Rhacophorus verrucosus

Frogs, `direct developing', conservation, Sri Lanka, 5, 304

Furcifer pardalis, ultraviolet light and reproduction, 2, 128

 

Garda Zoo, Italy, see Parco Natura Viva

Garrulax galbanus, conservation and research, China, 1, 45

Geochelone gigantea, breeding, Tulsa Zoo, 5, 315–316

Geochelone nigra,

breeding and conservation, San Diego Zoo, 8, 507–509

breeding, Zürich Zoo, 7, 448

Geronticus eremita,

hand-rearing, Konrad Lorenz Research Station, 1, 68

new aviary, Alpenzoo, 2, 117–118

Gibbon, lar, see Hylobates lar; white-cheeked, see H. leucogenys

Gila monster, see Heloderma suspectum

Ginglymostoma cirratum, reproductive study, Sea World, Orlando, 4, 256–257

Giraffa camelopardalis,

diet, Cologne Zoo, 5, 319

mixed exhibit with hamadryas baboon and white rhino, South Lakes Wild Animal Park, 8, 510

twin birth, Marwell Zoo, 6, 374

Giraffe, see Giraffa camelopardalis

Gorilla, western lowland, see Gorilla g. gorilla

Gorilla g. gorilla,

echocardiogram, Melbourne Zoo, 3, 180–181

mating, male and female from different groups, Barcelona Zoo, 6, 343–346

reintroduced, behavioural study, 5, 288–297

Graeme Hall Nature Sanctuary, Barbados, St Vincent amazon parrot, 1, 43–45; 4, 232

Graptemys barbouri, breeding, John G. Shedd Aquarium, 3, 178

Grus japonensis,

beak repair, Marwell Zoo, 7, 444

breeding by artificial insemination, Fort Worth Zoo, 5, 308

Guan, white-winged, see Penelope albipennis

Guillemot, pigeon, see Cepphus columba

Gymnogyps californianus,

new breeding facility, Oregon Zoo, 8, 505–506

reintroduced birds threatened by lead poisoning, 5, 302–303

 

Hagenbeck, Carl, book review, 8, 489–491

Haliaeetus leucocephalus, new exhibit, U.S. National Zoo, 5, 311–312

Hand-rearing,

long-tailed broadbill, Disney's Animal Kingdom, 3, 177

piping plover, John Ball Zoo, 6, 371

siamang, Auckland Zoo, 7, 438

southern ground hornbill, National Zoo, South Africa, 3, 186

waldrapp, Konrad Lorenz Research Station, 1, 68

Harderwijk Dolphinarium (Marine Mammal Park), the Netherlands,

breeding, walrus, 8, 502–503

food consumption and growth, walrus, 6, 385–386

Hartebeest, Jackson's, see Alcelaphus buselaphus jacksoni

Healesville Sanctuary, Victoria, Australia, visitor's report, 2, 81–83

Heidelberg Zoo, Germany, visitor's report, 8, 475–480

Heloderma horridum, breeding, Los Angeles Zoo, 3, 179–180

Heloderma suspectum,

breeding, Rotterdam Zoo, 2, 123

breeding, Los Angeles Zoo, 3, 179–180

Henry Doorly Zoo, Omaha, Nebraska, U.S.A., possible parthenogenesis, bonnethead shark, 1, 49–50

Herpailurus yaguarondi,

Rotterdam Zoo, 3, 183

social behaviour, Krefeld Zoo, 1, 66

Herring, see Clupea harengus

Hippotragus niger, sent to South Africa from Marwell Zoo, 6, 374–375

Hornbill, Asian pied, see Anthracoceros c. albirostris; great Indian, see Buceros bicornis; rhinoceros, see B. rhinoceros; southern ground, see Bucorvus leadbeateri; wreathed, see Aceros undulatus

Howletts Wild Animal Park, U.K., annual report 2001–2002, 2, 108–112

Hyaena hyaena, breeding, Tallinn Zoo, 2, 123–124

Hyena, spotted, see Crocuta crocuta; striped, see Hyaena hyaena

Hylobates lar, Réserve Africaine de Sigean, 3, 182–183

Hylobates leucogenys, reproductive research, Lincoln Park Zoo, 1, 67

Hylobates syndactylus,

mixed exhibit with orang-utan, San Diego Zoo, 5, 316

twin birth and hand-rearing, Auckland Zoo, 7, 438

Hypogeomys antimena, population and habitat viability assessment, 3, 194

 

Ibis, bald (waldrapp), see Geronticus eremita

Iguana, Grand Cayman Island blue, see Cyclura nubila lewisi

Indianapolis Zoo, Indiana, U.S.A., breeding, Grand Cayman Island blue iguana, 3, 177

Insects, enhancing nutritional value as reptile food, 4, 257–258; 6, 384

International Zoo News,

errors, 1, 2–3

history, 8, 459–460

sponsorship taken over by Chester Zoo, 1, 2

Isle of Wight Zoo, U.K., visitor's report, 4, 222–223

 

Jaguarundi, see Herpailurus yaguarondi

Jelly, spotted comb, see Leucothea pulchra

Jerez Zoo, Spain, rescue and rehabilitation, avocet, 2, 121

Johannesburg Zoo, South Africa, visitor's report, 6, 347–350

John Ball Zoo, Grand Rapids, Michigan, U.S.A., rescue and hand-rearing, piping plover 6, 371

John G. Shedd Aquarium, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.,

artificial insemination, Pacific white-sided dolphin, 4, 249–250

breeding, Barbour's map turtle, 3, 178

 

Kerbert, Coenraad, director (1890–1927), Amsterdam Zoo, 8, 481–486

Knowsley, 19th-century animal collection, book review, 3, 171–173

Knowsley Safari Park, Prescot, U.K.,

breeding, African elephant, 3, 178; 8, 503

Knoxville Zoo, Tennessee, U.S.A., breeding, red panda, 8, 510

Koala, see Phascolarctos cinereus

Konrad Lorenz Research Station, Grünau, Austria, hand-rearing, waldrapp, 1, 68

Krefeld Zoo, Germany, social behaviour, jaguarundi, 1, 66

Kristiansand Zoo, Norway, new tiger exhibit, 6, 371–372

Kuranda Koala Gardens, Queensland, Australia, enclosure design and enrichment, wombat, 7, 442–443

Kyiv (Kiev) Zoo, Ukraine, new exhibit, Amur brown bear, 6, 372–373

 

Lagenorhynchus obliquidens, artificial insemination, John G. Shedd Aquarium, 4, 249–250

Lagothrix lagotricha, seasonality of breeding, Brazilian zoos, 8, 487–488

Langurs, douc, see Pygathrix spp.

Leipzig Zoo, breeding, brown-banded bamboo shark, 5, 323

Lemur, ruffed, see Varecia variegata

Leontopithecus chrysomelas, group composition, contraception and aggression, 4, 257

Leopard, see Panthera pardus; Arabian, see P. p. nimr; clouded, see Neofelis nebulosa

Leptoptilos javanicus, breeding, Bronx Zoo, 7, 441

Leucothea pulchra, Monterey Bay Aquarium, 3, 181

Liberec Zoo, Czech Republic,

breeding, blue sheep, 8, 503–504

breeding, Somali wild ass, 8, 503

golden takin, 8, 503

Lichtenburg Game Breeding Centre, South Africa, fever study, antelopes, 4, 235

Lincoln Park Zoo, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.,

book review, 8, 492–493

reproductive research, white-cheeked gibbon, 1, 67

Lion, see Panthera leo

Lisbon Zoo, Portugal, artificial incubation and hand-rearing, toucan (Ramphastos sp.), 4, 250–251

Lissemys punctata andersoni, breeding, Baltimore Zoo, 6, 368

Living Coasts, Torquay, U.K., 7, 443

Lizard, beaded, see Heloderma horridum; Chinese crocodile, see Shinisaurus crocodilurus

London Zoo, U.K.,

annual report 2002, 6, 362–366

breeding (1876), Hoffmann's sloth, 1, 38

breeding, Charco Palma pupfish, 7, 455

new cobra species discovered, 8, 504

Lone Pine Koala Sanctuary, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, breeding by artificial insemination, koala, 6, 385

Longevity,

Asian elephant (57), Ringling Bros and Barnum & Bailey, 2, 126

Asian elephant (86?), Taipei Zoo, 3, 186

chimpanzee (53), Osaka Municipal Tennoji Zoo, 3, 182

Indian rhino (36), Tierpark Berlin, 8, 509–510

Lories and lorikeets, new exhibit, Oklahoma City Zoo, 6, 375

Loris, pygmy slow, see Nycticebus pygmaeus

Loro Parque, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain, 1, 59–60; 2, 121–122; 3, 178–179; 4, 251; 5, 308–309; 6, 373–374; 7, 443–444; 8, 504–505

infra-red thermography, penguins and parrots, 6, 369–370

Los Angeles Zoo, California, U.S.A.,

botanical collection, 1, 60–61

breeding, Gila monster and beaded lizard, 3, 179–180

Louisville Zoo, Kentucky, U.S.A., rotating animals between different exhibits, 3, 187

Loxodonta africana,

breeding by artificial insemination, Colchester Zoo, 4, 248

breeding, Knowsley Safari Park, 3, 178; 8, 503

shade in enclosure, Zoo Atlanta, 5, 320

Lycaon pictus, breeding, Denver Zoo, 3, 187

 

Macaca nigra, computer in enclosure, Paignton Zoo, 4, 198

Macaque, Sulawesi crested, see M. nigra

Macropus parma, sent to U.S. zoos, 5, 316

Magpie, azure-winged, see Cyanopica cyana

Mandrill, see Mandrillus sphinx

Mandrillus sphinx, Denver Zoo, 2, 119–120

Manouria emys, breeding, Fort Worth Zoo, 7, 442

Marmoset, common, see Callithrix jacchus

Marwell Zoo, U.K.,

beak repair, red-crowned crane, 7, 444

history, 3, 148–155

sable antelope sent to South Africa, 6, 374–375

sand cat, 1, 61–62

twin birth, giraffe, 6, 374

zoo-grown plants as animal food, 5, 309–310

Melbourne Zoo, Victoria, Australia,

breeding, Lord Howe Island stick insect, 5, 310; 7, 448

diet, koals, 8, 505

echocardiogram, gorilla, 3, 180–181

sends garden orbweaver spiders on space shuttle, 5, 310

Philippine crocodile, 4, 251–252

Miami Metrozoo, Florida, U.S.A., new `Wings of Asia' aviary, 5, 310–311

Mixed exhibit,

hamadryas baboon, white rhino and giraffe, South Lakes Wild Animal Park, 8, 510

siamang and orang-utan, San Diego Zoo, 5, 316

Monarto Zoo, South Australia,

annual report 2001/2002, 4, 240

white rhino, 2, 122

Monkey, bearded saki, see Chiropotes satanas; black howler, see Alouatta caraya; Bolivian gray titi, see Callicebus donacophilus; golden, see Rhinopithecus roxellana; woolly, see Lagothrix lagotricha

Monkey World, Dorset, U.K., rescue, Spanish beach photographer's chimpanzee, 4, 252–253

Monkeys, colobine, breeding, Belfast Zoo, 8, 498–499

Monterey Bay Aquarium, California, U.S.A.,

eggs rescued and hatched, western snowy plover, 7, 444–445

Pacific bluefin tuna, 3, 181

spotted comb jelly, 3, 181

Moose, see Alces alces

Moscow Zoo, Russia, call-based sex identification, white-faced whistling duck, 3, 160–167

Mountfort, Guy (1905–2003), death, 5, 316

Mussels, freshwater, Columbus Zoo, 2, 119

Mustela eversmanni, M. nigripes, photoperiod manipulation and reproduction, 3, 189

 

Naja nubiae, new species, discovered at London Zoo, 8, 504

National Zoo, Pretoria, South Africa,

blood transfusion, cheetah, 4, 253

hand-rearing and release, southern ground hornbill, 3, 186

National Zoo, Washington, D.C., U.S.A., new exhibit, bald eagle, 5, 311–312

Naturzoo Rheine, see Rheine Zoo

Neofelis nebulosa, breeding, Point Defiance Zoo, 5, 312

Newquay Zoo, U.K., purchased by Paignton Zoo, 7, 445

North Carolina Zoo, Asheboro, North Carolina, U.S.A., fostering into wild, red wolf, 3, 181–182

Nycticebus pygmaeus, reproductive research, San Diego Zoo, 3, 190

 

O'Connor, Patricia (1915–2003), obituary, 5, 262

Ocean Journey (aquarium), Denver, Colorado, U.S.A., purchased by seafood restaurant chain, 3, 186

Odobenus rosmarus,

breeding, Harderwijk Dolphinarium, 8, 502–503

food consumption and growth, Harderwijk Dolphinarium, 6, 385–386

Okapi, see Okapia johnstoni

Okapia johnstoni,

diet, Cologne Zoo, 5, 319

restraint box, San Diego Wild Animal Park, 4, 216–221

Oklahoma City Zoo, Oklahoma, U.S.A., new lorikeet and lory exhibit, 6, 375

Omega Parque, Monchique, Portugal, visitor's report, 2, 92–96; 4, 225

Orana Wildlife Park, Christchurch, New Zealand, breeding, tuatara, 6, 375–376

Orang-utan, see Pongo pygmaeus

Oregon Coast Aquarium, Newport, Oregon, U.S.A., breeding, pigeon guillemot, 7, 445–446

Oregon Zoo, Portland, Oregon, U.S.A., new breeding facility, California condor, 8, 505–506

Ornithorhynchus anatinus,

breeding (twins), Taronga Zoo, 3, 186–187

death on voyage to England (c. 1942), 4, 225–226; 5, 297

Osaka Municipal Tennoji Zoo, Japan, death at 53, chimpanzee, 3, 182

Ostrava Zoo, Czech Republic, breeding, jungle cat, 6, 388

Otter, oriental small-clawed, see Amblonyx cinereus

Ouwehands Zoo, Rhenen, the Netherlands, transport of pregnant polar bear, 1, 62

Owl, pharaoh eagle, see Bubo ascalaphus

 

Paignton Zoo (Whitley Wildlife Conservation Trust), U.K.,

computer in enclosure, Sulawesi macaque, 4, 198

purchases Newquay Zoo, 7, 445

Pan paniscus,

breeding, Twycross Zoo, 4, 255

tool use, Apenheul Primate Park, 2, 128

Pan troglodytes,

death at 53, Osaka Municipal Tennoji Zoo, 3, 182

recovery of socially deprived individuals, 2, 129

rescue from Spanish beach photographer, Monkey World, 4, 252–253

responses to novel foods, 2, 131–132

Panda, giant, see Ailuropoda melanoleuca; red, see Ailurus fulgens

Panthera leo, feeding enrichment study, Zoo Atlanta, 4, 256

Panthera pardus, stereotypy study, Indian zoos, 2, 129

Panthera pardus nimr, breeding, Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife, 1, 43

Panthera tigris, feeding enrichment study, Zoo Atlanta, 4, 256

Panthera tigris altaica,

new exhibit, Kristiansand Zoo, 6, 371–372

stereotyping study, Zürich Zoo, 2, 128–129

Panthera tigris amoyensis, training for reintroduction, South Africa, 4, 231–232

Papilio spp., breeding, Tama Zoo, 2, 124–125

Papio hamadryas

book review, 2, 107

management and contraception, Cologne Zoo, 1, 66–67

mixed exhibit with white rhino and giraffe, South Lakes Wild Animal Park, 8, 510

Paradisaea rubra, breeding, Chester Zoo, 6, 368–369

Parco Natura Viva (Garda Zoological Park), Bussolengo, Italy, vocalisation research, ruffed lemur, 6, 376

Parrots,

dietary protein requirements of nectarivorous, frugivorous and granivorous species, 4, 260

infra-red thermography, Loro Parque, 6, 369–370

Peltophryne lemur, captive breeding and release, 8, 497

Penelope albipennis, reintroduction, Peru, 5, 302

Penguin, black-footed (African), see Spheniscus demersus; Humboldt's, see S. humboldti; king, see Aptenodytes patagonicus

Penguins, infra-red thermography, Loro Parque, 6, 369–370

Perth Zoo, Western Australia, visitor's report, 2, 76–80

Phascolarctos cinereus,

breeding by artificial insemination, Lone Pine Koala Sanctuary, 6, 385

diet, Melbourne Zoo, 8, 505

Pheasant, Reeves's, see Syrmaticus reevesii

Pistoia Zoo, Italy, annual report 2002, 2, 112–114

Platypus, see Ornithorhynchus anatinus

Plover, piping, see Charadrius melodus; western snowy, see C. alexandrinus nivosus

Pogona vitticeps, nutrient composition, 1, 65–66

Point Defiance Zoo, Tacoma, Washington, U.S.A.,

breeding, clouded leopard, 5, 312

faecal hormone analysis, red wolf, 7, 446

rotating animals between different exhibits, 3, 187

Polecat, Siberian, see Mustela eversmanni

Pondicherry, India, zoo planned in response to novel, 4, 255

Pongo pygmaeus

book review, 3, 171

environmental enrichment, San Diego Zoo, 3, 184–185

mixed exhibit with siamang, San Diego Zoo, 5, 316

Port Lympne Wild Animal Park, U.K., annual report 2001–2002, 2, 108–112

Potamotrygon spp., breeding, Audubon Aquarium of the Americas, 6, 367

Prague Zoo, Czech Republic, flood damage, 2, 122–123

Psarisomus dalhousiae, hand-rearing, Disney's Animal Kingdom, 3, 177

Pseudois nayaur szechuanensis, breeding, Liberec Zoo, 8, 503–504

Pteropus livingstonii, new `flight tunnel', Jersey Zoo, 8, 501

Pupfish, Charco Palma, see Cyprinodon longidorsalis

Pygathrix spp., food intake and preferences, Endangered Primate Rescue Center and Cologne Zoo, 7, 449

Python, Burmese, see Python molurus bivittatus

Python molurus bivittatus, parthenogenesis, Amsterdam Zoo, 4, 246

 

Qalqiliya Zoo, West Bank, 5, 316

 

Ramat-Gan Zoological Center, Tel Aviv, Israel,

breeding, Asian elephant, 1, 64

social structure and reproduction, white rhino, 2, 130–131

Ramphastos sp., artificial incubation and hand-rearing, Lisbon Zoo, 4, 250–251

Rat, giant jumping, see Hypogeomys antimena

Recurvirostra avosetta, rescue and rehabilitation, Jerez Zoo, 2, 121

Reintroduction or release (actual or proposed),

black-and-white ruffed lemur, Madagascar, 1, 47–48

bongo, Kenya, 5, 303

California condor, U.S.A., 5, 302–303

gorilla, Republic of Congo, 5, 288–297

Persian fallow deer, Israel, 3, 142–146

Puerto Rican crested toad, Puerto Rico, 8, 497

red wolf, U.S.A., 3, 181–182

South China tiger, China, 4, 231–232

southern ground hornbill, South Africa, 3, 186

swift fox, Canada, 7, 452

white-winged guan, Peru, 5, 302

Reptiles,

enhancing nutritional value of insects as food, 4, 257–258

management, European zoos, 1, 49

Rescue and rehabilitation,

avocet, Jerez Zoo, 2, 121

piping plover, John Ball Zoo, 6, 371

toucan, Lisbon Zoo, 4, 250–251

Réserve Africaine de Sigean, France, new exhibit, lar gibbon, 3, 182–183

Rhacophorus verrucosus, breeding, Riga Zoo, 1, 62–63

Rheine Zoo (Naturzoo Rheine), Germany, annual report 2001, 2, 114–116; 2002, 6, 360–362

Rhinoceros, black, see Diceros bicornis; Indian, see Rhinoceros unicornis; Sumatran, see Dicerorhinus sumatrensis; white, see Ceratotherium simum

Rhinoceros spp., information resource centre, 1, 3

Rhinoceros unicornis, death at 36, Tierpark Berlin, 8, 509–510

Rhinopithecus roxellana, in situ study, San Diego Center for Reproduction of Endangered Species, 4, 230–231

Riga Zoo, Latvia, breeding, Vietnamese frog Rhacophorus verrucosus, 1, 62–63

Ringling Bros and Barnum & Bailey, Florida, U.S.A., death of male Asian elephant at 57, 2, 126

Riverbanks Zoo, Columbia, South Carolina, U.S.A., 3, 183; 4, 253; 8, 506

Roller, long-tailed ground, see Uratelornis chimaera

Rotterdam Zoo, the Netherlands,

breeding, Gila monster, 2, 123

in situ conservation, king penguin. Falkland Islands, 4, 253–254

jaguarundi, 3, 183

 

St Augustine Alligator Farm, Florida, U.S.A., crocodilians, swallowing under water, 4, 234–235

St Louis Zoo, Missouri, U.S.A.,

new marine bird exhibit, 4, 254–255

reproductive research, bush dog, 3, 183–184

Saki, bearded, see Chiropotes satanas

Salamander, Japanese giant, see Andrias japonicus

Salzburg Zoo, Austria, behavioural study, wolf, 4, 259

San Antonio Zoo, Texas, U.S.A., breeding, Jackson's hartebeest, 8, 506–507

San Diego Center for Reproduction of Endangered Species (CRES),

breeding by cloning, banteng, 3, 187

in situ study, golden monkey, 4, 230–231

San Diego Wild Animal Park, California, U.S.A.,

enrichment creation as educational exercise, 6, 377–378

husbandry, dhole, 8, 462–466

restraint box, okapi, 4, 216–221

San Diego Zoo, California, U.S.A.,

breeding and conservation, Galápagos tortoise, 8, 507–509

environmental enrichment, orang-utan, 3, 184–185

mating, giant panda, 5, 312–314

mixed exhibit, siamang and orang-utan, 5, 316

reproductive research, pygmy slow loris, 3, 190

San Diego, Zoological Society of, in situ study, Komodo dragon, 8, 498–497

Sanaa Zoo, Yemen, visitors' report, 6, 338–342

Schönbrunn Zoo, Vienna, Austria, chronobiological study, cheetah cubs, 6, 330–336

giant panda, 6, 378–379

vocalization study, cheetah cubs, 8, 468–474

Sea World, Orlando, Florida, U.S.A., reproductive study, nurse shark, 4, 256–257

Sea World, San Diego, California, U.S.A., breeding, green sea turtle, 7, 446

Sea World, Surfers Paradise, Queensland, Australia,

new shark exhibit, 7, 446–447

visitor interaction, bottle-nosed dolphin, 3, 185–186

Seal, Australian fur, see Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus

Seal, Ulysses S. (1929–2003), obituary, 3, 134–137

Sericulus aureus ardens,

breeding, Al Wabra Wildlife Conservation, 5, 305

DNA sexing, Al Wabra Wildlife Conservation, 3, 156–159

Shanghai Zoo, China, visitor's report, 5, 280–283

Shark, bonnethead, see Sphyrna tiburo; brown-banded bamboo, see Chiloscyllium punctatum; nurse, see Ginglymostoma cirratum; white-spotted bamboo, see Chiloscyllium plagiosum

Sharks,

colour aberrations, 2, 127

diet, 5, 319

new exhibit, Sea World, Surfers Paradise, 7, 446–447

Sheep, blue, see Pseudois nayaur szechuanensis

Shinisaurus crocodilurus, behavioural study, Brookfield Zoo, 3, 192–193

Siamang, see Hylobates syndactylus

Singapore Zoo,

acupuncture treatment, Komodo dragon, 6, 380–381

new exhibit, Asian elephant, 6, 379–380

Skansen Foundation, Stockholm, Sweden, first captive breeding (c. 1890), polar bear, 1, 38

Sloth, Hoffmann's, see Choloepus hoffmanni

South Lakes Wild Animal Park, Dalton-in-Furness, U.K., mixed exhibit, hamadryas baboon, white rhino and giraffe, 8, 510

Southport Zoo, U.K., 1, 63–64

Speothos venaticus, reproductive research, St Louis Zoo, 3, 183–184

Spheniscus demersus, albino, Bristol Zoo, 4, 247–248

Spheniscus humboldti, new exhibit, Emmen Zoo, 1, 58–59

Sphenodon punctatus, breeding, Orana Wildlife Park, 6, 375–376

Sphyrna tiburo, possible parthenogenesis, Henry Doorly Zoo, 1, 49–50

Spider, garden orbweaver, see Eriophora transmarinus

Staten Island Zoo, New York, U.S.A., book review, 6, 355

Stick insect, Lord Howe Island, see Dryococelus australis

Stingray, freshwater, see Potamotrygon spp.

Stork, lesser adjutant, see Leptoptilos javanicus

Sydney Aquarium, New South Wales, Australia, visitor's report, 2, 76

Syrmaticus reevesii, feathers donated to Beijing opera, Cricket St Thomas Wildlife Park, 5, 306

 

Taipei Zoo, Taiwan, death at 86 (?), male Asian elephant, 3, 186

Takin, golden, see Budorcas taxicolor bedfordi

Tallinn Zoo, Estonia, breeding, striped hyena, 2, 123–124

Tama Zoo, Tokyo, Japan, breeding, swallowtail butterflies, 2, 124–125

Tamandua, southern, see Tamandua tetradactyla

Tamandua tetradactyla, Denver Zoo, 4, 248–249

Tamarin, golden-headed lion, see Leontopithecus chrysomelas

Tapir, Malayan, see Tapirus indicus; mountain, see T. pinchaque

Tapirus indicus, breeding, Belfast Zoo, 4, 246–247

Tapirus pinchaque, breeding, Cheyenne Mountain Zoo, 7, 441

Taronga Zoo, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia,

acoustic research, Australian fur seal, 7, 447

breeding, twin platypus, 3, 186–187

visitor's report, 2, 73–76

Thrush, yellow-throated laughing, see Garrulax galbanus

Thunnus orientalis, Monterey Bay Aquarium, 3, 181

Tidbinbilla Nature Reserve, Tharwa, Australian Capital Territory, Australia, aftermath of fire, 5, 314

Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde, Germany, 1, 64; 4, 255

annual report 2001–2002, 7, 428–433

death at 36, Indian rhino, 8, 509–510

Tierpark Hagenbeck, Hamburg, Germany, annual report 2002, 4, 241–243

Tiger, see Panthera tigris; Siberian (Amur), see P. t. altaica; South China (Amoy), see P. t. amoyensis

Tisch Family Zoo (Biblical Zoo), Jerusalem, Israel, travelling zoo programme, 7, 408–417

Toad, Puerto Rican crested, see Peltophryne lemur

Toads, stub-footed, see Atelopus spp.

Tortoise, Aldabra giant, see Geochelone gigantea; Asian brown mountain, see Manouria emys; Galápagos giant, see Geochelone nigra; Seychelles giant, see Dipsochelys spp.

Tortoises, book review, 8, 493–494

Toucan, see Ramphastos sp.

Tower of London menagerie, book review, 5, 298–299

Tragelaphus eurycerus, reintroduction, Kenya, 5, 303

Tsimbazaza Zoo, Antananarivo, Madagascar, breeding, long-tailed ground roller, 2, 125

Tuatara, see Sphenodon punctatus

Tulsa Zoo, Oklahoma, U.S.A., breeding, Aldabra tortoise, 5, 315–316

Tuna, Pacific bluefin, see Thunnus orientalis

Tursiops truncatus, visitor interaction, Sea World, Surfers Paradise, 3, 185–186

Turtle, Barbour's map, see Graptemys barbouri; green sea, see Chelonia mydas; Indian flapshell, see Lissemys punctata andersoni

Twins,

black howler monkey, Apenheul Primate Park, 6, 367

giraffe, Marwell Zoo, 6, 374

platypus, Taronga Zoo, 3, 186–187

siamang, Auckland Zoo, 7, 438

Twycross Zoo, U.K., breeding, bonobo, 4, 255

 

Ueno Zoo, Tokyo, Japan,

breeding, aye-aye, 7, 448

breeding, native passerine birds, 5, 315

Uratelornis chimaera, breeding, Tsimbazaza Zoo, 2, 125

Ursus arctos lasiotus, new exhibit, Kyiv Zoo, 6, 372–373

Ursus maritimus,

first captive breeding (c. 1890), Skansen Foundation, 1, 38

Churchill, Hudson Bay, book review, 3, 173

transport of pregnant female, Ouwehands Zoo, 1, 62

 

Vallée des Singes, Romagne, France, bachelor group, ruffed lemur, 3, 138–141

van Dam, Gerard (1927–2003),

editorship of International Zoo News, 8, 459–460

obituary, 8, 458

Vanga, sickle-billed, see Falculea palliata

Varanus komodoensis,

acupuncture treatment, Singapore Zoo, 6, 380–381

breeding, Denver Zoo, 3, 186

in situ study, Zoological Society of San Diego, 8, 496–497

Varecia variegata,

bachelor group, ruffed lemur, 3, 138–141

release, Madagascar, 1, 47–48

vocalisation research, Parco Natura Viva, 6, 376

Vogelpark Heppenheim, Germany, breeding, Asian pied hornbill, 4, 255

Vombatus ursinus, enclosure design and enrichment, Kuranda Koala Gardens, 7, 442–443

VORTEX population simulation programme, 8, 497

Vulpes velox, reintroduction, Canada, 7, 452

 

Wadi Al Safa Wildlife Centre, Dubai, sends pharaoh eagle owls to World Owl Trust, 5, 315

Waldrapp, see Geronticus eremita

Wallabies, survival of very small pouch young after short-term removal, 3, 195

Wallaby, parma, see Macropus parma

Walrus, see Odobenus rosmarus

Walsrode Bird Park, Germany,

annual report 2002, 4, 243–245

breeding, sickle-billed vanga, 2, 125

Western Plains Zoo, Dubbo, New South Wales, Australia, import and breeding, white rhino, 7, 447–448

Whipsnade Wild Animal Park, annual report 2002, 6, 362–366

White Oak Conservation Center, Yulee, Florida, U.S.A., behavioural and reproductive study, cheetah, 3, 195–196

Wide-ranging species, suitability for zoos questioned, 7, 393–394

Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust, Slimbridge, U.K., educational website, 2, 126

Wilhelma Zoo, Stuttgart, Germany, breeding, great Indian hornbill, 8, 509

Wolf, see Canis lupus; red, see C. rufus

Wombat, common, see Vombatus ursinus

World Owl Trust, Muncaster Castle, Cumbria, U.K., receives pharaoh eagle owls from Wadi Al Safa Wildlife Centre to World Owl Trust, 5, 315

Wuppertal Zoo, Germany, annual report 2002, 7, 437

 

Zoo Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.A.,

feeding enrichment study, lion and tiger, 4, 256

shade in enclosure, African elephant, 5, 320

training, giant panda, 7, 449–450

Zoological Information Management System (ZIMS), 4, 233–234

Zoological Society of London, U.K. (London Zoo & Whipsnade Wild Animal Park), annual report 2002, 6, 362–366

Zoos,

archaeology of, 4, 207–215

art and, 5, 264

Australian, 2, 72–85

catering, 6, 326–328

children's, 2, 97–100

history and tradition, 2, 101–102; 4, 207–215

Japanese, memorial services for dead animals, 1, 50

Japanese, chelonians in, 5, 265–275

publications, inaccuracy, 1, 38–39

visitor services, 6, 326–328

Zürich Zoo, Switzerland,

breeding, Galápagos tortoise, 7, 448

death of animals in transit from Madagascar, 2, 126

stereotyping study, Siberian tiger, 2, 128–129